Found 9912 matches for
Self-monitoring blood pressure in hypertension, patient and provider perspectives: A systematic review and thematic synthesis
© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Objective: To systematically review the qualitative evidence for patient and clinician perspectives on self-measurement of blood pressure (SMBP) in the management of hypertension focussing on: how SMBP was discussed in consultations; the motivation for patients to start self-monitoring; how both patients and clinicians used SMBP to promote behaviour change; perceived barriers and facilitators to SMBP use by patients and clinicians. Methods: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, SocAbs were searched for empirical qualitative studies that met the review objectives. Reporting of included studies was assessed using the COREQ framework. All relevant data from results/findings sections of included reports were extracted, coded inductively using thematic analysis, and overarching themes across studies were abstracted. Results: Twelve studies were included in the synthesis involving 358 patients and 91 clinicians. Three major themes are presented: interpretation, attribution and action; convenience and reassurance v anxiety and uncertainty; and patient autonomy and empowerment improve patient-clinician alliance. Conclusions: SMBP was successful facilitating the interaction in consultations about hypertension, bridging a potential gap in the traditional patient-clinician relationship. Practice implications: Uncertainty could be reduced by providing information specifically about how to interpret SMBP, what variation is acceptable, adjustment for home-clinic difference, and for patients what they should be concerned about and how to act.
Support for mothers and their families after life-threatening illness in pregnancy and childbirth:a qualitative study in primary care
© British Journal of General Practice. Background: One in 100 women who give birth in the UK develop life-threatening illnesses during childbirth. Without urgent medical attention these illnesses could lead to the mother's death. Little is known about how the experience of severe illness in childbirth affects the mother, baby, and family. Aim: As part of the UK National Maternal Near-miss Surveillance Programme, this study explored the experiences of women and their partners of lifethreatening illnesses in childbirth, to identify the long-term impact on women and their families. Design and setting: Qualitative study based on semi-structured narrative interviews. Interviews were conducted in patients' homes in England and Scotland from 2010 to 2014. Method: An in-depth interview study was conducted with 36 women and 11 partners. A maximum variation sample was sought and interviews transcribed for thematic analysis with constant comparison. Results: Women's birth-related illnesses often had longlasting effects on their mental as well as physical health, including anxiety, panic attacks, and post-traumatic stress disorder. In some cases the partner's mental health was also affected. Women often described feeling isolated. Their experiences can have a profound impact on their relationships, family life, career, and future fertility. While some women described receiving good support from their GP, others felt there was little support available for them or their families after discharge from hospital. Conclusion: A near-miss event can have long-lasting and major effects on women and their families. Support in primary care, including watchful waiting for mental health impacts, can play a valuable role in helping these families come to terms with their emergency experience. The findings highlight the importance of communication between primary and secondary care.
Objectives: This study explores the roles and meanings of the Internet, which is commonly used in this age group, as a source of support for people with fertility problems. Methods: A qualitative interview study with 27 women and 11 men who had been, or were going, through treatment for infertility. A maximum variation sample was sought. Narrative interviews were conducted and transcribed for thematic analysis. Results: Women and men with fertility problems often feel isolated. The Internet offers anonymity, emotional support, normalisation and reassurance. It also offers the prospect of niche support from others going through treatments at the same time and in similar circumstances. Online infertility networks can play a valuable role in helping people deal with the emotional stresses and isolation they feel during and after treatment, but has the potential to reinforce isolation. Conclusions: The Internet is changing people's experience of infertility, giving people access to other's experiences. Internet communication is highly valued by couples, especially those isolated in their real world relationships. Practice implications: Clinicians can help by referring couples to websites while being aware that increasingly 'niche' support could compound isolation. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
What can make things better for parents when babies need abdominal surgery in their first year of life? A qualitative interview study in the UK
© 2018 author(s). Objectives To understand the experiences of parents of infants who required surgery early in life. To identify messages and training needs for the extended clinical teams caring for these families-including paediatric surgeons, neonatologists, nurses, obstetricians, midwives and sonographers. Setting UK-wide interview study, including England, Wales and Scotland. Participants In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 parents who had a baby who underwent early abdominal surgery. Conditions included those diagnosed antenatally (eg, exomphalos, gastroschisis, congenital diaphragmatic hernia) or those which were detected postnatally (eg, Hirschsprung's disease, necrotising enterocolitis). Interviews were video and audio recorded and analysed using a modified grounded-theory approach. Results While some parents reported experiencing excellent communication and felt they were listened to and involved by the care team, this was not always the case. Dealing with large, complex medical and surgical teams could result in conflicting messages, uncertainty and distress. Parents wanted information but also described being overwhelmed and wanting to distance themselves to maintain hope. Information and support from other parents in hospital and online groups were highly valued. Of particular concern was support when going home and caring for their baby after discharge; an open access policy for readmission offered a helpful safety net. Conclusions Listening to the experience of parents provides rich data to enhance clinical understandings on how to improve information and communication with parents, and ameliorate the deep and lasting distress and anxiety that some parents feel when their infants face early surgery. We suggest that the writings of Bourdieu could have resonance in interpreting the experiences of parents as they enter the world of highly technical neonatal medicine and surgery and the knowledge of the professionals who work in these environments.
Female genital mutilation in the UK- where are we, where do we go next? Involving communities in setting the research agenda.
Background: Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is all practices involving cutting, alteration or injury to the female genitalia for non-medical reasons. It is a form of violence against women and children, with no benefits and many harms. In 2014, the UK Government committed to working to eliminate FGM. Steps taken towards this aim included creation of educational and safeguarding resources for professionals, and legislative changes including a mandatory reporting duty for professionals in England and Wales (where if a girl under 18 discloses or is found on examination to have FGM then the professional is mandated to report this to the police), and an FGM Enhanced Dataset applicable to NHS organisations in England requiring the submission of personal data about women and girls who have had FGM to NHS Digital. To date, compliance with dataset returns from primary care services have been low. This report describes using patient and public involvement (PPI) to identify research and service priorities to support communities affected by FGM. Methods: We held a series of PPI events (4 focus groups, and a multi-agency seminar) in 2015-2016, following the introduction of these legislative changes, speaking to community members, and professionals involved in their care. We asked participants to consider what they identified as research, knowledge and service priorities to support communities affected by FGM. Results: The impact of these legislative and reporting requirements on the trust needed for community members to seek to consult health services was identified as important for further research. Priorities for service development were holistic services, that met a woman's needs throughout her lifecourse. Participants emphasised the importance of understanding how to listen, involve and utilise community voices in developing education for professionals, designing services, and developing policy. Conclusions: There was a desire for change to develop from within affected communities; any learning and resources need to be co-created and constructed in such a way that they can be effectively shared between women, communities, and professionals. Questions remain about how to define community consultation, how to recognise when it was adequate, and how to hear beyond community activists to hear a wider range of voices.
© 2018 The Cochrane Collaboration. This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of different types of death review in reducing maternal, perinatal and child mortality.
The association between perceived household educational support and HIV risk in young women in a rural South African community (HPTN 068): A cross sectional study
© 2019 Price et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Objective To characterise perceived household support for female education and the associations between educational support and HIV prevalence, HSV-2 prevalence and sexual risk behaviours. Methods This cross-sectional study used baseline survey data from the Swa Koteka HPTN 068 trial undertaken in Mpumalanga, South Africa. The study included 2533 young women aged 13–20, in grades 8–11 at baseline. HIV and HSV-2 status were determined at baseline. Information about patterns of sexual behaviour and household support for education was collected during the baseline survey. Linear regression and binary logistic regression were used to determine associations between household support for education and both biological and behavioural outcomes. Results High levels of educational support were reported across all measures. HIV prevalence was 3.2% and HSV-2 prevalence was 4.7%, both increasing significantly with age. Over a quarter (26.6%) of young women reported vaginal sex, with 60% reporting condom use at last sex. The median age of sexual debut was 16 years. Household educational support was not significantly associated with HIV or HSV-2; however, the odds of having had vaginal sex were significantly lower in those who reported greater homework supervision (OR 0.82, 95%CI: 0.72–0.94), those who engaged in regular discussion of school marks with a caregiver (OR 0.82, 95%CI: 0.71–0.95) and when caregivers had greater educational goals for the young woman (OR 0.82, 95%CI: 0.71–0.96). In contrast, greater caregiver disappointment at dropout was significantly associated with reported vaginal sex (OR 1.29, 95%CI: 1.14–1.46). Conclusion Young women in rural South Africa report experiencing high levels of household educational support. This study suggests that greater household educational support is associated with lower odds of having vaginal sex and engaging in risky sexual behaviour, though not with HIV or HSV-2 prevalence.
© 2019 Ballesio, Aquino, Kyle, Ferlazzo and Lombardo. Background: Executive functions (EFs) are involved in the control of basic psychological processes such as attention and memory and also contribute to emotion regulation. Research on the presence of EFs impairments in insomnia yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we performed a systematic review of the literature on three EFs: inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility in adults with insomnia in order to investigate the presence and magnitude of insomnia-related EFs impairments. Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Medline, and PsycINFO were searched. Risk of bias assessment of included studies was performed by two independent researchers. Findings were summarised using both a narrative approach and meta-analysis. Cohen's d was calculated at 95% confidence interval (CI) as effect size of between groups differences. Results: Twenty-eight studies comparing adult individuals with a diagnosis of insomnia and healthy controls on neuropsychological measures of EFs were included. Narrative synthesis revealed substantial variability across study findings. Factors that were primarily hypothesised to account for this variability are: objective sleep impairments and test sensitivity. Exploratory meta-analysis showed impaired performance of small to moderate magnitude in individuals with insomnia as compared to controls in reaction times, but not accuracy rates, of inhibitory control (d = -0.32, 95% CI: -0.52 to -0.13) and cognitive flexibility tasks (d = -0.30, 95% CI: -0.59 to -0.01). Performance in working memory tasks was also significantly impacted (d = -0.19, 95% CI: -0.38 to -0.00). Effects sizes were larger when insomnia was associated with objective sleep impairments, rather than normal sleep. Conclusions: We gathered evidence supporting small to moderate deficits in EFs in individuals with insomnia. Due to the small sample size results should be considered preliminary and interpreted carefully.
The equity impact of brief opportunistic interventions to promote weight loss in primary care: Secondary analysis of the BWeL randomised trial 11 Medical and Health Sciences 1117 Public Health and Health Services
© 2019 The Author(s). Background: Guidelines recommend that clinicians should make brief opportunistic behavioural interventions to patients who are obese to increase the uptake of effective weight loss programmes. The objective was to assess the effect of this policy on socioeconomic equity. Methods: One thousand eight hundred eighty-two consecutively attending patients with obesity and who were not seeking support for weight loss from their GP were enrolled in a trial. Towards the end of each consultation, GPs randomly assigned participants to one of two 30-s interventions. In the active intervention (support arm), the GP offered referral to a weight management group. In the control intervention (advice arm), the GP advised the patient that their health would benefit from weight loss. Agreement to attend a behavioural weight loss programme, attendance at the programme and weight loss at 12 months were analysed by socioeconomic status, measured by postcode using the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). Results: Mean weight loss was 2.43 kg (sd 6.49) in the support group and 1.04 kg (sd 5.50) for the advice only group, but these effects were moderated by IMD (p = 0.039 for the interaction). In the support arm, weight loss was greater in higher socioeconomic groups. Participants from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were more likely to accept the offer and equally likely to attend a weight loss referral but attended fewer sessions. Adjusting for these sequentially reduced the gradient for the association of socioeconomic status with weight loss from + 0.035 to - 0.001 kg/IMD point. In the advice only arm, 10% took effective action to promote weight loss. The decision to seek support for weight loss outside of the trial did not differ by socioeconomic status, but weight loss among deprived participants who used external support was greater than among more affluent participants (p = 0.025). Conclusion: Participants' responses to GPs' brief opportunistic interventions to promote weight loss differed by socioeconomic status and trial arm. In the support arm, more deprived people lost less weight because they attended fewer sessions at the programme. In the advice arm, more deprived people who sought and paid for support for weight loss themselves lost more weight than more affluent people who sought support.
The impact of arthritis on the educational and early work experiences of young people: a qualitative secondary analysis
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:sec id="j_ijamh-2018-0240_s_999"> <jats:title id="d38874561e258">Introduction</jats:title> <jats:p>Young people’s transition into adulthood is intertwined with the worlds of education and work. Poor health in adolescence has been associated with poorer education and employment outcomes in adulthood. This paper explores the impact of arthritis on the educational and early work experiences of young people with arthritis.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="j_ijamh-2018-0240_s_998"> <jats:title id="d38874561e267">Methods</jats:title> <jats:p>We undertook a supplementary secondary analysis of a qualitative dataset comprising narrative and semi-structured interviews of 39 young people who had been diagnosed with arthritis in childhood, adolescence or young adulthood.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="j_ijamh-2018-0240_s_997"> <jats:title id="d38874561e276">Results</jats:title> <jats:p>Our findings illustrate how young people living with arthritis are faced with a range of added disruptions and challenges in their educational/vocational lives. There is an important element of resilience associated with the process of making a career choice and acting upon personal aspirations. Appropriate support and flexibility in the workplace/educational setting can enable successful outcomes, but disclosure is not a straightforward process for young people living with arthritis.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="j_ijamh-2018-0240_s_996"> <jats:title id="d38874561e285">Conclusions</jats:title> <jats:p>It is paramount that health providers consistently and effectively address self-advocacy skills with the young person, particularly during educational and vocational transitions. Alongside this, there is the need to further strengthen the health-school/work interface to ensure that young people living with chronic illness can meet their full potential in adulthood.</jats:p> </jats:sec>
© The Author(s) 2019. There is increasing evidence that placebos could be effective in clinical practice. However, knowledge of public perspectives on placebos is underdeveloped. We conducted a discourse analysis of internet comments on news articles related to placebos, aiming to improve this knowledge for clinicians and researchers. We developed two discursive constructs of the placebo. The dominant construct of the ‘placebo pill’ informs a paradoxical understanding of placebos that closes down treatment. The less-prevalent counter-discursive construct of the ‘treatment process’ frames placebos as potentially viable within modern evidence-based medicine. We discuss the opportunities and challenges of this alternative understanding of placebos.
© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ. Introduction: General practitioners (GP) use few technical devices during emergency situations. They have to recognise which patients have a life-threatening disease in order to treat or refer them appropriately. Monitoring by a wearable device could help GPs while waiting for the emergency physician to arrive. The PICO monitor is a handheld monitoring device, capable of registering five routine parameters and small enough to be carried in the GP's bag. We aim to determine the analytical accuracy of the PICO monitor in adults, comparing the recorded vital signs and ECGs of the PICO with those of a standard emergency department (ED) monitor. Methods: Adult (≥18 years) patients, admitted on two inpatient university EDs in Belgium, were recruited. We recorded the SpO 2 , heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR), temperature (T°) and 5-lead ECGs. We analysed the correlation and agreement between the continuous and dichotomous variables of the PICO and the ED monitors. Results: We included 226 patients (84% of 268 approached), mean age 66 years, 61% were men. The Bland and Altman analysis confirmed the good accuracy, giving a nearly perfect agreement for SpO 2 (difference - 0.9%), for HR ('1.5 beats), for RR between the monitors (0.1 breaths), for RR between the manually counted and the PICO or the monitor (respectively 0.2 and 0.0 breaths), also confirmed by the regression analysis (Passing-Bablok). Analysis of 219 ECG records provided a near perfect agreement between the devices (kappa respectively 0.61-0.80 and 0.81-1.00) for the most important ECG abnormalities. In none of the comparisons, differences were clinically relevant. Conclusion: We were able to confirm the analytical accuracy of the PICO monitor in comparison with the ED monitors. The PICO monitor can be considered a reliable device for monitoring patients during emergencies by GPs and even in ambulances or EDs as a mobile alternative.