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Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the first intron of the ubiquitously expressed FTO gene are associated with obesity. Although the physiological functions of FTO remain unclear, food intake is often altered when Fto expression levels are manipulated. Furthermore, deletion of FTO from neurones alone has a similar effect on food intake to deletion of FTO in all tissues. These results indicate that FTO expression in the brain is particularly important. Considerable focus has been placed on the dynamic regulation of Fto mRNA expression in the hypothalamus after short-term (16-48 hour) fasting, but results have been controversial. There are no studies that quantify FTO protein levels across the brain, and assess its alteration following short-term fasting. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that FTO protein is widely expressed in mouse brain, and present in the majority of neurones. Using quantitative Western blotting and RT-qPCR we show that FTO protein and mRNA levels in the hypothalamus, cerebellum and rostral brain are relatively uniform, and levels in the brain are higher than in skeletal muscles of the lower limbs. Fasting for 18 hours does not alter the expression pattern, or levels, of FTO protein and mRNA. We further show that the majority of POMC neurones, which are critically involved in food intake regulation, also express FTO, but that the percentage of FTO-positive POMC neurones is not altered by fasting. In summary, we find no evidence that Fto/FTO expression is regulated by short-term (18-hour) fasting. Thus, it is unlikely that the hunger and increased post-fasting food intake caused by such food deprivation is driven by alterations in Fto/FTO expression. The widespread expression of FTO in neurones also suggests that physiological studies of this protein should not be limited to the hypothalamus. © 2011 McTaggart et al.
Variants in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene are associated with increased body mass index in humans. Here, we show by bioinformatics analysis that FTO shares sequence motifs with Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate - dependent oxygenases. We find that recombinant murine Fto catalyzes the Fe(II)- and 2OG-dependent demethylation of 3-methylthymine in single-stranded DNA, with concomitant production of succinate, formaldehyde, and carbon dioxide. Consistent with a potential role in nucleic acid demethylation, Fto localizes to the nucleus in transfected cells. Studies of wild-type mice indicate that Fto messenger RNA (mRNA) is most abundant in the brain, particularly in hypothalamic nuclei governing energy balance, and that Fto mRNA levels in the arcuate nucleus are regulated by feeding and fasting. Studies can now be directed toward determining the physiologically relevant FTO substrate and how nucleic acid methylation status is linked to increased fat mass.
Mutations within the P-loop of Kir6.2 modulate the intraburst kinetics of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel
The ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel exhibits spontaneous bursts of rapid openings, which are separated by long closed intervals. Previous studies have shown that mutations at the internal mouth of the pore-forming (Kir6.2) subunit of this channel affect the burst duration and the long interburst closings, but do not alter the fast intraburst kinetics. In this study, we have investigated the nature of the intraburst kinetics by using recombinant Kir6.2/SUR1 KATP channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Single-channel currents were studied in inside-out membrane patches. Mutations within the pore loop of Kir6.2 (V127T, G135F, and M137C) dramatically affected the mean open time (τo) and the short closed time (τCl) within a burst, and the number of openings per burst, but did not alter the burst duration, the interburst closed time, or the channel open probability. Thus, the V127T and M137C mutations produced longer τo, shorter τCl, and fewer openings per burst, whereas the G135F mutation had the opposite effect. All three mutations also reduced the single-channel conductance: from 70 pS for the wild-type channel to 62 pS (G135F), 50 pS (M137C), and 38 pS (V127T). These results are consistent with the idea that the KATP channel possesses a gate that governs the intraburst kinetics, which lies close to the selectivity filter. This gate appears to be able to operate independently of that which regulates the long interburst closings.
Systemic administration of glibenclamide fails to achieve therapeutic levels in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid of rodents
© 2015 Lahmann et al. Activating mutations in the Kir6.2 (KCNJ11) subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel cause neonatal diabetes (ND). Patients with severe mutations also suffer from neurological complications. Glibenclamide blocks the open K<inf>ATP</inf> channels and is the treatment of choice for ND. However, although glibenclamide successfully restores normoglycaemia, it has a far more limited effect on the neurological problems. To assess the extent to which glibenclamide crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo, we quantified glibenclamide concentrations in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain tissue of rats, control mice, and mice expressing a human neonatal diabetes mutation (Kir6.2-V59M) selectively in neurones (nV59M mice). As only small sample volumes can be obtained from rodents, we developed a highly sensitive method of analysis, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry acquisition with pseudo-selected reaction monitoring, achieving a quantification limit of 10ng/ml (20nM) glibenclamide in a 30ìl sample. Glibenclamide was not detectable in the CSF or brain of rats after implantation with subcutaneous glibenclamide pellets, despite high plasma concentrations. Further, one hour after a suprapharmacological glibenclamide dose was administered directly into the lateral ventricle of the brain, the plasma concentration was twice that of the CSF. This suggests the drug is rapidly exported from the CSF. Elacridar, an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (major multidrug resistance transporters at the BBB), did not affect glibenclamide levels in CSF and brain tissue. We also identified a reduced sensitivity to volatile anaesthetics in nV59M mice and showed this was not reversed by systemic delivery of glibenclamide. Our results therefore suggest that little glibenclamide reaches the central nervous system when given systemically, that glibenclamide is rapidly removed across the BBB when given intracranioventricularly, and that any glibenclamide that does enter (and is below our detection limit) is insufficient to influence neuronal function as assessed by anaesthesia sensitivity. Copyright:
Autosomal Dominant Hypercalciuria in a Mouse Model Due to a Mutation of the Epithelial Calcium Channel, TRPV5
Hypercalciuria is a major cause of nephrolithiasis, and is a common and complex disorder involving genetic and environmental factors. Identification of genetic factors for monogenic forms of hypercalciuria is hampered by the limited availability of large families, and to facilitate such studies, we screened for hypercalciuria in mice from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis programme. We identified a mouse with autosomal dominant hypercalciuria (HCALC1). Linkage studies mapped the Hcalc1 locus to a 11.94 Mb region on chromosome 6 containing the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, members 5 (Trpv5) and 6 (Trpv6) genes. DNA sequence analysis of coding regions, intron-exon boundaries and promoters of Trpv5 and Trpv6 identified a novel T to C transition in codon 682 of TRPV5, mutating a conserved serine to a proline (S682P). Compared to wild-type littermates, heterozygous (Trpv5682P/+) and homozygous (Trpv5682P/682P) mutant mice had hypercalciuria, polyuria, hyperphosphaturia and a more acidic urine, and ~10% of males developed tubulointerstitial nephritis. Trpv5682P/682P mice also had normal plasma parathyroid hormone but increased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations without increased bone resorption, consistent with a renal defect for the hypercalciuria. Expression of the S682P mutation in human embryonic kidney cells revealed that TRPV5-S682P-expressing cells had a lower baseline intracellular calcium concentration than wild-type TRPV5-expressing cells, suggesting an altered calcium permeability. Immunohistological studies revealed a selective decrease in TRPV5-expression from the renal distal convoluted tubules of Trpv5682P/+ and Trpv5682P/682P mice consistent with a trafficking defect. In addition, Trpv5682P/682P mice had a reduction in renal expression of the intracellular calcium-binding protein, calbindin-D28K, consistent with a specific defect in TRPV5-mediated renal calcium reabsorption. Thus, our findings indicate that the TRPV5 S682P mutant is functionally significant and study of HCALC1, a novel model for autosomal dominant hypercalciuria, may help further our understanding of renal calcium reabsorption and hypercalciuria. © 2013 Loh et al.
Functional analysis of a mutant sulfonylurea receptor, SUR1-R1420C, that is responsible for persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy
The ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP/+) channel is crucial for the regulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic β-cell, and mutations in either the sulfonylurea receptor type 1 (SUR1) or Kir6.2 subunit of this channel can cause persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI). We analyzed the functional consequences of the PHHI missense mutation R1420C, which lies in the second nucleotide-binding fold (NBF2) of SUR1. Mild tryptic digestion of SUR1 after photoaffinity labeling allowed analysis of the nucleotide-binding properties of NBF1 and NBF2. Labeling of NBF1 with 8-azido-[α-32P]ATP was inhibited by MgATP and MgADP with similar Ki for wild-type SUR1 and SUR1-R1420C. However, the MgATP and MgADP affinities of NBF2 of SUR1-R1420C were about 5-fold lower than those of wild-type SUR1. MgATP and MgADP stabilized 8-azido-ATP binding at NBF1 of wild-type SUR1 by interacting with NBF2, but this cooperative nucleotide binding was not observed for SUR1-R1420C. Studies on macroscopic currents recorded in inside-out membrane patches revealed that the SUR1-R1420C mutation exhibits reduced expression but does not affect inhibition by ATP or tolbutamide or activation by diazoxide. However, co-expression with Kir6.2-R50G, which renders the channel less sensitive to ATP inhibition, revealed that the SUR1-R1420C mutation increases the EC50 for MgADP activation from 74 to 197 μM. We suggest that the lower expression of the mutant channel and the reduced affinity of NBF2 for MgADP may lead to a smaller KATP/+ current in R1420C-PHHI β-cells and thereby to the enhanced insulin secretion. We also propose a new model for nucleotide activation of KATP/+ channels.
There has been considerable debate as to whether adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is compartmentalized within cells and, in particular, whether the ATP concentration directly beneath the plasma membrane, experienced by membrane proteins, is the same as that of the bulk cytoplasm. This issue has been difficult to address because there is no indicator of cytosolic ATP, such as those available for Ca 2+ , capable of resolving the submembrane ATP concentration ([ATP](sm)) in real time within a single cell. We show here that mutant ATP-sensitive K + channels can be used to measure [ATP](sm) by comparing the increase in current amplitude on patch excision with the ATP dose-response curve. In Xenopus oocytes, [ATP](sm) was 4.6 ± 0.3 mM (n = 29) under resting conditions, slightly higher than that measured for the bulk cytoplasm (2.3 mM). In mammalian (COSm6) cells, [ATP](sm) was slightly lower and averaged 1.4 ± 0.1 mM (n = 66). Metabolic poisoning (10 min of 3 mM azide) produced a significant fall in [ATP](sm) in both types of cells: to 1.2 ± 0.1 mM (n = 24) in oocytes and 0.8 ± 0.11 mM for COSm6 cells. We conclude that [ATP](sm) lies in the low millimolar range and that there is no gradient between bulk cytosolic and submembrane [ATP].
Heteromeric channel formation and Ca<sup>2+</sup>-free media reduce the toxic effect of the weaver K(ir), 3.2 allele
Weaver mice have a severe hypoplasia of the cerebellum with an almost complete loss of the midline granule cells. Recent genetic studies of weaver mice have identified a mutation resulting in an amino acid substitution (G156S) in the pore of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel subunit K(ir) 3.2. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes the weaver mutation alters channel selectivity from a potassium-selective to a nonspecific cation-selective pore. In this study me confirm by cell-attached patch-clamp recording that the mutation produces a non-selective cation channel. We also demonstrate that the cell death induced by weaver expression may be prevented by elimination of calcium from the extracellular solution as well as by coexpression with the wild-type K(ir), 3.2 allele, or other members of the K(ir) 3.0 subfamily. These results suggest that the weaver defect in K(ir) 3.2 may cause cerebellar cell death by cell swelling and calcium overload. Cells which express the weaver subunit, but which normally survive, may do so because of heteromeric subunit assembly with wild-type subunits of the K(ir) 3.0 subfamily.
Activating mutations in the gene encoding the ATP-sensitive potassium-channel subunit Kir6.2 and permanent neonatal diabetes
BACKGROUND: Patients with permanent neonatal diabetes usually present within the first three months of life and require insulin treatment. In most, the cause is unknown. Because ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels mediate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta cells, we hypothesized that activating mutations in the gene encoding the Kir6.2 subunit of this channel (KCNJ11) cause neonatal diabetes. METHODS: We sequenced the KCNJ11 gene in 29 patients with permanent neonatal diabetes. The insulin secretory response to intravenous glucagon, glucose, and the sulfonylurea tolbutamide was assessed in patients who had mutations in the gene. RESULTS: Six novel, heterozygous missense mutations were identified in 10 of the 29 patients. In two patients the diabetes was familial, and in eight it arose from a spontaneous mutation. Their neonatal diabetes was characterized by ketoacidosis or marked hyperglycemia and was treated with insulin. Patients did not secrete insulin in response to glucose or glucagon but did secrete insulin in response to tolbutamide. Four of the patients also had severe developmental delay and muscle weakness; three of them also had epilepsy and mild dysmorphic features. When the most common mutation in Kir6.2 was coexpressed with sulfonylurea receptor 1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes, the ability of ATP to block mutant KATP channels was greatly reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Heterozygous activating mutations in the gene encoding Kir6.2 cause permanent neonatal diabetes and may also be associated with developmental delay, muscle weakness, and epilepsy. Identification of the genetic cause of permanent neonatal diabetes may facilitate the treatment of this disease with sulfonylureas. Copyright © 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Switching to sulphonylureas in children with iDEND syndrome caused by KCNJ11 mutations results in improved cerebellar perfusion
OBJECTIVE-Activating mutations in the KCNJ11 gene, encoding the Kir6.2 subunit of the KATP channel, result in permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus. They also may cause neurologic symptoms such as mental retardation and motor problems (iDEND syndrome) and epilepsy (DEND syndrome). Sulphonylurea (SU) treatment is reported to alleviate both the neurologic symptoms and diabetes in such cases. The study aimed to establish the magnitude and functional basis of the effect of SUs on the neurologic phenotype in children with iDEND using neuroimaging before and after insulin replacement with glibenclamide. RESEARCHDESIGNANDMETHODS-To localize and quantify the effect of glibenclamide administration, we performed single-photon emission computed tomography in seven patients with different mutations in KCNJ11. In five patients, measurements before and after initiation of SU treatment were performed. RESULTS-Significant changes in single-photon emission computed tomography signal intensity after transfer to SU therapy were restricted to the cerebellum, consistent with previous data showing high Kir6.2 expression in this brain region. Cerebellar perfusion improved for both left (P = 0.006) and right (P = 0.01) hemispheres, with themean improvement being 26.7±7.1%(n=5).No patients showed deterioration of cerebellar perfusion on SU therapy. Electrophysiological studies revealed a good correlation between the magnitude of KATP channel dysfunction and the clinical phenotype; mutant channels with the greatest reduction in adenosine 5′-triphosphate inhibition were associated with the most severe neurologic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS-We conclude it is likely that at least some of the beneficial effects of SU treatment on neurodevelopment in iDEND patients result from improved cerebellar perfusion. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.
The response of ATP-sensitive K + channels (K ATP ) to cellular metabolism is coordinated by three classes of nucleotide binding site (NBS). We used a novel approach involving labeling of intact channels in a native, membrane environment with a non-canonical fluorescent amino acid and measurement (using FRET with fluorescent nucleotides) of steady-state and time-resolved nucleotide binding to dissect the role of NBS2 of the accessory SUR1 subunit of K ATP in channel gating. Binding to NBS2 was Mg 2+ -independent, but Mg 2+ was required to trigger a conformational change in SUR1. Mutation of a lysine (K1384A) in NBS2 that coordinates bound nucleotides increased the EC 50 for trinitrophenyl-ADP binding to NBS2, but only in the presence of Mg 2+ , suggesting that this mutation disrupts the ligand-induced conformational change. Comparison of nucleotide-binding with ionic currents suggests a model in which each nucleotide binding event to NBS2 of SUR1 is independent and promotes K ATP activation by the same amount.
Cloning and functional expression of the cDNA encoding a novel ATP-sensitive potassium channel subunit expressed in pancreatic β-cells, brain, heart and skeletal muscle
A cDNA clone encoding an inwardly-rectifying potassium channel subunit (Kir6.2) was isolated from an insulinoma cDNA library. The mRNA is strongly expressed in brain, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and in insulinoma cells, weakly expressed in lung and kidney and not detectable in spleen, liver or testis. Heterologous expression of Kir6.2 in HEK293 cells was only observed when the cDNA was cotransfected with that of the sulphonylurea receptor (SUR). Whole-cell Kir6.2/SUR currents were K+-selective, time-independent and showed weak inward rectification. They were blocked by external barium (5 mM), tolbutamide (Kd = 4.5μM) or quinine (20μM) and by 5 mM intracellular ATP. The single-channel conductance was 73 pS. Single-channel activity was voltage-independent and was blocked by 1 mM intracellular ATP or 0.5 mM tolbutamide. We conclude that the Kir6.2/SUR channel complex comprises the ATP-sensitive K-channel. © 1995 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. All rights reserved.
Increased ATPase activity produced by mutations at arginine-1380 in nucleotide-binding domain 2 of ABCC8 causes neonatal diabetes
Gain-of-function mutations in the genes encoding the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel subunits Kir6.2 (KCNJ11) and SUR1 (ABCC8) are a common cause of neonatal diabetes mellitus. Here we investigate the molecular mechanism by which two heterozygous mutations in the second nucleotide-binding domain (NBD2) of SUR1 (R1380L and R1380C) separately cause neonatal diabetes. SUR1 is a channel regulator that modulates the gating of the pore formed by Kir6.2. KATP channel activity is inhibited by ATP binding to Kir6.2 but is stimulated by MgADP binding, or by MgATP binding and hydrolysis, at the NBDs of SUR1. Functional analysis of purified NBD2 showed that each mutation enhances MgATP hydrolysis by purified isolated fusion proteins of maltose-binding protein and NBD2. Inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by MgADP was unaffected by mutation of R1380, but inhibition by beryllium fluoride (which traps the ATPase cycle in the prehydrolytic state) was reduced. MgADP-dependent activation of KATP channel activity was unaffected. These data suggest that the R1380L and R1380C mutations enhance the off-rate of Pi, thereby enhancing the hydrolytic rate. Molecular modeling studies supported this idea. Because mutant channels were inhibited less strongly by MgATP, this would increase KATP currents in pancreatic beta cells, thus reducing insulin secretion and producing diabetes. © 2007 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.
PPAR gamma 2 prevents lipotoxicity by controlling adipose tissue expandability and peripheral lipid metabolism.
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARg2) is the nutritionally regulated isoform of PPARg. Ablation of PPARg2 in the ob/ob background, PPARg2(-/-) Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) (POKO mouse), resulted in decreased fat mass, severe insulin resistance, beta-cell failure, and dyslipidaemia. Our results indicate that the PPARg2 isoform plays an important role, mediating adipose tissue expansion in response to positive energy balance. Lipidomic analyses suggest that PPARg2 plays an important antilipotoxic role when induced ectopically in liver and muscle by facilitating deposition of fat as relatively harmless triacylglycerol species and thus preventing accumulation of reactive lipid species. Our data also indicate that PPARg2 may be required for the beta-cell hypertrophic adaptive response to insulin resistance. In summary, the PPARg2 isoform prevents lipotoxicity by (a) promoting adipose tissue expansion, (b) increasing the lipid-buffering capacity of peripheral organs, and (c) facilitating the adaptive proliferative response of beta-cells to insulin resistance.