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©The Authors. BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections managed in general practice. Many women with symptoms of uncomplicated UTI may not benefit meaningfully from antibiotic treatment, but the evidence base is complex and there is no suitable shared decision-making resource to guide antibiotic treatment and symptomatic care for use in general practice consultations. AIM: To develop an evidence-based, shared decision-making intervention leaflet to optimise management of uncomplicated UTI for women aged <65 years in the primary care setting. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative telephone interviews with GPs and patient focus group interviews. METHOD: In-depth interviews were conducted to explore how consultation discussions around diagnosis, antibiotic use, self-care, safety netting, and prevention of UTI could be improved. Interview schedules were based on the Theoretical Domains Framework. RESULTS: Barriers to an effective joint consultation and appropriate prescribing included: lack of GP time, misunderstanding of depth of knowledge and miscommunication between the patient and the GP, nature of the consults (such as telephone consultations), and a history of previous antibiotic therapy. CONCLUSION: Consultation time pressures combined with late symptom presentation are a challenge for even the most experienced of GPs: however, it is clear that enhanced patient-clinician shared decision making is urgently required when it comes to UTIs. This communication should incorporate the provision of self-care, safety netting, and preventive advice to help guide patients when to consult. A shared decision-making information leaflet was iteratively co-produced with patients, clinicians, and researchers at Public Health England using study data.

Original publication




Journal article


The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners

Publication Date





e330 - e338