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The traditionally promulgated perspectives of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) as rare, indolent tumours are blunt and have been outdated for the last 2 decades. Clear increments in their incidence over the past decades render them increasingly clinically relevant, and at initial diagnosis many present with nodal and/or distant metastases (notably hepatic). The molecular pathogenesis of these tumours is increasingly yet incompletely understood. Those arising from the small bowel (SB) or pancreas typically occur sporadically; the latter may occur within the context of hereditary tumour predisposition syndromes. NENs can also be associated with endocrinopathy of hormonal hypersecretion. Tangible advances in the development of novel biomarkers, functional imaging modalities and therapy are especially applicable to this sub-set of tumours. The management of SB and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NET) may be challenging, and often comprises a multidisciplinary approach wherein surgical, medical, interventional radiological and radiotherapeutic modalities are implemented. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of SB and pancreatic NETs. Moreover, we provide an outlook of the future in these tumour types which will include the development of precision oncology frameworks for individualised therapy, multi-analyte predictive biomarkers, artificial intelligence-derived clinical decision support tools and elucidation of the role of the microbiome in NEN development and clinical behaviour.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





444 - 476