The Relationship between Self-Reported Exposure to Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Promotions and Intake: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the 2017 International Food Policy Study.
Forde H., White M., Levy L., Greaves F., Hammond D., Vanderlee L., Sharp S., Adams J.
Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is independently associated with several non-communicable diseases, so policymakers are increasingly implementing measures, such as marketing regulation, to reduce intake. To help understand how such measures work, this study examined the association between SSB consumption and self-reported exposure to SSB promotions, both overall and by type of promotion, and whether these relationships vary between the UK, USA, Canada, Mexico, and Australia. Cross-sectional analysis of the online 2017 International Food Policy Study was performed (n = 15,515). Participants were grouped into 5265 (34%) non-, 5117 (33%) low-, and 5133 (33%) high-SSB consumers. Multinomial logistic regression models examined whether SSB consumption varied by exposure to total SSB promotion and by type: traditional, digital, recreational environment, and functional environment. Multiplicative interactions were included to investigate international variations. An additional unit of total self-reported SSB promotion exposure increased the likelihood of participants being low SSB consumers (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.10) and high SSB consumers (RRR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.11-1.16). Only exposure to traditional and digital promotion increased the likelihood of participants being SSB consumers, though this may be explained by degree of exposure, which was not measured in this study. Some evidence illustrated international variation in these relationships.