Tracking of a dietary pattern and its components over 10-years in the severely obese.
Johns DJ., Lindroos AK., Jebb SA., Sjöström L., Carlsson LMS., Ambrosini GL.
Understanding how dietary intake changes over time is important for studies of diet and disease and may inform interventions to improve dietary intakes. We investigated how a dietary pattern (DP) tracked over 10-years in the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study control group. Dietary intake was assessed at multiple time-points in 2037 severely obese individuals (BMI 41 ± 4 kg/m(2)). Reduced rank regression was used to derive a dietary pattern using dietary energy density (kJ/g), saturated fat (%) and fibre density (mg/kJ) as response variables and score respondents at each follow-up. Tracking coefficients for the DP, its key foods and macronutrient response variables and corrected for time-dependent and time-independent covariates were calculated using generalised estimating equations to take into account all available data. The DP tracking coefficient was moderate for women (0.40; 95% CI: 0.38-0.42) and men (0.38; 95% CI: 0.35-0.41). Of the eleven foods key to this DP, fruit and vegetable intakes had the strongest tracking coefficient for both sexes. Fast food and candy had the lowest tracking coefficients for women and men respectively. Scores for an energy dense, high saturated fat, low fibre density DP appear moderately stable over a 10-year period in this severely obese population. Furthermore, some food groups appear more amenable to change while others, often the most healthful, appear more stable and may require intervention before adulthood.