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© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Knowledge of the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and weight loss is limited. The aim was to analyse whether selected obesity-associated SNPs within the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO), transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18), melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R), SEC16 homolog B (SEC16B), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene are associated with anthropometric changes during behavioural intervention for weight loss. genetic and anthropometric data from 576 individuals with overweight and obesity from four lifestyle interventions were obtained. A genetic predisposition score (GPS) was calculated. Our results show that study participants had a mean age of 48.2 ± 12.6 years and a mean baseline body mass index of 33.9 ± 6.4 kg/m2. Mean weight reduction after 12 months was −7.7 ± 10.9 kg. After 12 months of intervention, the MC4R SNPs rs571312 and rs17782313 were significantly associated with a greater decrease in body weight and BMI (p = 0.012, p = 0.011, respectively). The investigated SNPs within the other four genetic loci showed no statistically significant association with changes in anthropometric parameters. The GPS showed no statistically significant association with weight reduction. In conclusion there was no consistent evidence for statistically significant associations of SNPs with anthropometric changes during a behavioural intervention. It seems that other factors play a more significant in weight management than the investigated SNPs.

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