CXCR2 and CXCL4 regulate survival and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells
Sinclair A., Park L., Shah M., Drotar M., Calaminus S., Hopcroft LEM., Kinstrie R., Guitart AV., Dunn K., Abraham SA., Sansom O., Michie AM., Machesky L., Kranc KR., Graham GJ., Pellicano F., Holyoake T.
The regulation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) survival and self-renewal within the bone marrow (BM) niche is not well understood. We therefore investigated global transcriptomic profiling of normal human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, revealing that several chemokine ligands (CXCL1-4, CXCL6, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL13) were up-regulated in human quiescent CD34+Hoescht-Pyronin Y- and primitive CD34+38-, as compared to proliferating CD34+Hoechst+Pyronin Y+ and CD34+38+ stem/progenitor cells. This suggested that chemokines may play an important role in the homeostasis of HSCs. In human CD34+ hematopoietic cells, knock-down of CXCL4 or pharmacological inhibition of the chemokine receptor CXCR2, significantly decreased cell viability and colony forming cell (CFC) potential. Studies on Cxcr2-/- mice demonstrated enhanced BM and spleen cellularity, with significantly increased numbers of HSC, hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC)-1, HPC-2 and Lin-Sca-1+c-Kit+ sub-populations. Cxcr2-/- stem/progenitor cells showed reduced self-renewal capacity as measured in serial transplantation assays. Parallel studies on Cxcl4 demonstrated reduced numbers of CFC in primary and secondary assays following knock-down in murine c-Kit+ cells and Cxcl4-/- mice showed a decrease in HSC and reduced self-renewal capacity after secondary transplantation. These data demonstrate that the CXCR2 network and CXCL4 play a role in the maintenance of normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell fates, including survival and self-renewal.