Prevalence and Patterns of Multimorbidity among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive People in Odisha, India: An Exploratory Study.
Pati S., Bhattacharya S., Swain S.
INTRODUCTION: Improved and efficient Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) has turned HIV positive into a chronic disorder. The increase in life expectancy and quality of life comes with an increased risk of multimorbidity from the traditional risk factors. AIM: To explore the prevalence of multimorbidity among People Living with HIV (PLHIV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An exploratory cross-sectional study was carried out in an ART center of Odisha, India, from November 2013 to December 2013. A systematic random sampling was done to include 197 adult HIV positive patients receiving ART at least for one year or more. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic profile, ART status, multimorbidity and opportunistic infections. RESULTS: The prevalence of multimorbidity was 47.7% (95% CI 41% to 55%). Among them, the most common chronic conditions were pulmonary tuberculosis (28.4%), gastro-intestinal conditions (7.1%), neural disorders (5.1%) and hypertension (2.5%). In total, 48.7% had opportunistic infections; with 36% bacterial, 25% fungal and 21% viral infections. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of multimorbidity was high among HIV positive patients. Further research should explore the epidemiology of multimorbidity among HIV positive patients to formulate proper clinical practice guidelines to enhance long-term outcomes of PLHIV in the current treatment era.