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BACKGROUND: There are limited data available on how the problem of alcohol use is detected in primary care setting in India. Particularly in Odisha, it has not been investigated yet. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of drinking, drinking patterns, and quitting behavior among the male patients visiting a primary health-care facility in a district of Odisha. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients attending community health center (CHC), Buguda in the state of Odisha, India, from December 1, 2014, to February 31, 2015. Patients above 18 years of age, conscious, and willing to participate in the study were included in the study, while those with cognitive impairment and critically ill were excluded from the study. All eligible consecutive patients attending outpatient department of CHC were invited to participate while they came out after physician's consultation. A pilot study was conducted prior to the study. Informed verbal consent from each patient was obtained before the interview. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Indian Institute of Public Health, Bhubaneswar. RESULTS: A total of 431 patients were interviewed. Our study showed 38% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.5%-42.7%) of respondents were alcoholic and of those 60% (95% CI: 51.4%-66.5%) were hazardous drinkers. One in five patients had a history of alcoholics in their family, and a similar proportion of participants were heavy workers. Smokers were eight times (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =7.56; 4.03-14.52) more likely to be alcoholics as compared to nonsmokers (P < 0.001), whereas the prevalence of alcohol drinking was four times (AOR = 3.94; 2.25-6.92) higher in smokeless tobacco users compared to nonusers. CONCLUSION: Focusing only on counseling and treatment services will not reduce the piling burden of alcohol use. It is important to target the environment that leads to such habits.

Original publication




Journal article


J Pharm Bioallied Sci

Publication Date





66 - 72


Alcohol misuse, India, Odisha, hazardous drinking, primary care