Reach, accessibility and acceptance of different communication channels for health promotion: a community-based analysis in Odisha, India.
Kshatri JS., Palo SK., Panda M., Swain S., Sinha R., Mahapatra P., Pati S.
INTRODUCTION: To achieve universal health coverage, improving demand generation at community is necessary. Media plays an important role by acting as a linking pin between health service providers and the community. This study intended to assess the penetration and acceptability of various forms of media for health communication in Odisha, India. METHODS: A cross-sectional mixed method study was conducted in 2016 in four districts. Following a desk review, a situational analysis was done at state, district and sub-district level. Data was collected through direct observation of study sites using a predefined checklist on knowledge awareness and practice, focussed group discussion and in-depth interviews using semi-structured questionnaire. Qualitative data was analyzed using framework approach while for quantitative data, we used SPSS 20.0. RESULTS: Major identified media houses were television (TV), radio and newspaper. Many health programs were being broadcasted in regional TV channels of the state, whereas leading public radio channel broadcasted highest number of health programs almost daily. The major source for information on disease symptoms and prevention was television (63.6%), remove hyphen (36.6%), newspaper (21.6%), health facility/service providers (17.7%), radio (9.2%), and other media like posters, pamphlets and folk dance (5.5%). Information on disease treatment or management was received mostly from television (61.2%), poster/leaflets (39.2%), remove hyphen (35.2%) and newspaper (19.7%). Only 8% of people received any health related message in mobile in past one year. Boards and hoarding provided information to 16.5% of study population. Nearly 36% respondents got information from health-wall, which are used to promote health awareness through wall paintings, graffiti etc. For immunization related information, interpersonal communication through frontline health workers was the most preferred. CONCLUSION: Interpersonal communication is believed to be most acceptable source of information on maternal and child health, immunization and neonatal care. For people with low literacy, remove hyphen campaign, folk media and interpersonal communication were found to be effective.