The liver is a common site of metastases from many cancers, particularly those originating in the gastrointestinal tract. Liver transplantation is an uncommonly used but promising and at times controversial treatment option for neuroendocrine and colorectal liver metastases. Transplantation with meticulous patient selection has been associated with excellent long-term outcomes in individuals with neuroendocrine liver metastases, but questions remain regarding the role of transplantation in those who could also be eligible for hepatectomy, the role of neoadjuvant/adjuvant treatments in minimising recurrence, and the optimal timing of the procedure. A prospective pilot study of liver transplantation for unresectable colorectal liver metastases that reported a 5-year overall survival rate of 60% reinvigorated interest in this area following initially dismal outcomes. This has been followed by larger studies, and prospective trials are ongoing to quantify the potential benefits of liver transplantation over palliative chemotherapy. This review provides a critical summary of currently available knowledge on liver transplantation for neuroendocrine and colorectal liver metastases, and highlights avenues for further study to address gaps in the evidence base.
Journal of Hepatology
1137 - 1146