Glycemic control over 5 years in 4,900 people with type 2 diabetes: Real-world diabetes therapy in a clinical trial cohort
OBJECTIVE - Glycemic control in type 2 diabetes generally worsens over time, requiring intensification of therapy. The Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) trial provided the opportunity to observe glycemic control in a real-world setting. We assessed the adequacy of metformin, sulfonylureas, and insulin to maintain glycemic control and their effects on weight. RESEARCH DESIGNANDMETHODS - Diabetes control was measured at baseline and yearly for a median of 5 years in the 4,900 patients from the nonintervention arm of this study allocated to placebo. RESULTS - Median HbA 1c was 6.9% at baseline and increased by an average of 0.22% over 5 years (P < 0.001). Median weight was 86.3 kg at baseline and decreased by 0.4 kg over 5 years (P = 0.002). Baseline therapy was lifestyle measures only in 27%, oral agents without insulin in 59%, and insulin in 14%(7%also taking oral agents). Over 5 years, insulin use increased to 32% (21% also taking oral agents). Use of oral agents remained similar at 56%. Only 2% of patients at baseline and 4% after 5 years were taking oral agents other than metformin or sulfonylureas. Initiation of insulin therapy in 855 patients produced a sustained reduction of HbA 1c from a median of 8.2 to 7.7%, with a weight gain of 4.6 kg over 5 years. CONCLUSIONS - With intensification of traditional therapies, glycemic control deteriorated very little over 5 years in a large cohort of type 2 diabetes. However, the requirement for insulin therapy doubled, at the expense of significant weight gain and risk of hypoglycemia. © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.