The contribution of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, health anxiety and intolerance of uncertainty to distress in ménière's disease
Kirby SE., Yardley L.
This study assessed whether symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), health anxiety, and intolerance of uncertainty were associated with distress in members of the Ménière's Society (n = 800), and compared the extent of anxiety, depression, intolerance of uncertainty, and health anxiety with a healthy control group (n = 484). PTSD symptoms were associated with anxiety, depression, and handicap. Health anxiety was associated with anxiety and depression. Intolerance of uncertainty was directly associated with anxiety; its association with depression and handicap was mediated by PTSD symptoms. The Ménière's group reported more anxiety, depression, and health anxiety than the control group, but were not more intolerant of uncertainty. More than half of the Ménière's group reported experiencing partial or full PTSD symptoms. As PTSD, health anxiety and intolerance of uncertainty are modifiable with psychological treatment, we advise that clinicians should screen patients with Ménière's disease who are particularly distressed. © 2009 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.