Cognitions associated with anxiety in Ménière's disease
Kirby SE., Yardley L.
Objectives: The purpose of this longitudinal study was to identify cognitions associated with anxiety and maintenance of anxiety in people with Ménière's disease. Method: At baseline, participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Dizziness Beliefs Scale, the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale, and measures of demographic and illness characteristics. Participants were then randomized to a no-treatment group or to receive one of two self-help booklets, and completed the HADS again at 3-month follow-up. Results: After symptom severity had been controlled for, baseline anxiety was found to be associated with intolerance of uncertainty, fear-avoidance of physical activity, belief that dizziness would develop into a severe attack of vertigo, and several illness perception subscales (emotional representations, consequences, psychological causes, and perceived treatment effectiveness). Anxiety on follow-up was predicted by higher baseline levels of autonomic/somatic symptoms and intolerance of uncertainty, and by reporting less understanding of the illness. These longitudinal relationships were found in those who did and who did not receive self-help booklets. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that intolerance of uncertainty is associated with anxiety in Ménière's disease. A controlled trial is needed to see whether anxiety might be reduced in Ménière's disease by helping patients tolerate and cope with uncertainty. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.