Cross-cultural validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) in older people: Results from Germany, the Netherlands and the UK were satisfactory
Kempen GIJM., Todd CJ., Van Haastregt JCM., Zijlstra GAR., Beyer N., Freiberger E., Hauer K., Piot-Ziegler C., Yardley L.
Purpose. To carry out a cross-cultural validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I), a 16-item modified version of the Falls Efficacy Scale that was developed to assess both easy and more complex physical and social activities, in a range of languages and different cultural contexts. Method. Data were collected in Germany (n = 94), TheNetherlands (n = 193), and the UK (n = 178) in samples of older people living in the community. Four-week FES-I re-test data were collected in Germany and The Netherlands. Descriptive statistics and reliability estimates were computed as well as FES-I sum scores according to age, sex, falls history and fear of falling. Results. Mean inter-item correlations were all above 0.38 and internal reliability estimates were all 0.90 or above. The intra-class correlation coefficients in the German and the Dutch sample were 0.79 and 0.82, respectively. As expected, FES-I scores were associated with age, sex, falls history and fear of falling. In addition, the FES-I discriminated between sub-groups somewhat better than the original ten-item FES scale. Conclusions. The FES-I has been shown to have acceptable reliability and construct validity in different samples in different countries and may be used in cross-cultural rehabilitation research and clinical trials.