Interventions to reduce fear of falling in community-living older people: A systematic review
Zijlstra GAR., Van Haastregt JCM., Van Rossum E., Van Eijk JTM., Yardley L., Kempen GIJM.
The objective was to assess which interventions effectively reduce fear of falling in community-living older people. An extensive search for relevant literature comprised a database search of PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; expert consultation; and manually searching reference lists from potentially relevant papers. Randomized, controlled trials that assessed fear of falling in community-living older people were included. Two independent reviewers extracted data from full papers on study characteristics, methodological quality, outcomes, and process characteristics of the intervention. The search identified 599 abstracts, and 19 papers met the inclusion criteria. Seven of those papers were identified using expert consultation. Fifty-five percent of all validity items and 39% of process characteristic items were fulfilled across the 19 trials. Twelve of the 19 papers were of higher methodological quality. In 11 of these trials, fear of falling was lower in the intervention group than in the control group. Interventions that showed effectiveness were fall-related multifactorial programs (n=5), tai chi interventions (n=3), exercise interventions (n=2), and a hip protector intervention (n=1). Three of these interventions explicitly aimed to reduce fear of falling. Several interventions, including interventions not explicitly aimed at fear of falling, resulted in a reduction of fear of falling in community-living older people. Limited but fairly consistent findings in trials of higher methodological quality showed that home-based exercise and fall-related multifactorial programs and community-based tai chi delivered in group format have been effective in reducing fear of falling in community-living older people. © 2007, The American Geriatrics Society.