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Background: Salmonella Typhi is the major cause of enteric fever in lower income countries. New conjugate vaccines show promise as public health interventions, however there are no efficacy data available from endemic areas. Methods: Data were obtained from a previously published phase 3 randomised controlled trial comparing Vi-polysaccharide tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Typbar-TCV; Bharat Biotech Intl Ltd, India): (Vi-TT) with Vi-polysaccharide (Typbar; Bharat Biotech Intl Ltd, India): (Vi-PS) in participants aged 2- 45 years. An additional open-label arm administered Vi-TT to children aged 6 months to 23 months. The proportion of participants with presumed clinical or subclinical infection ('seroincidence'), was determined using mixture models and compared using relative risks. Results: 81/387 (21%) participants were classified as having presumed typhoid infection during the 2 year period post-vaccination. Seroincidence was lower in those randomised to Vi-TT than Vi-PS in those aged 2-45 years; 21/155 (13.5%) vs 47/129 (36.4%); RR 0.372 (95%CI 0.235-0.588), p<0.0001 and in those aged 2-15 years RR 0.424 (95%CI 0.231-0.778), p=0.0039. There was no difference in seroincidence in those receiving Vi-TT aged 2-45 years and those aged 6-23 months; 21/155 (13.5%) vs 13/103 (12.6%); RR 1.073 (0.563, 2.046), p=0.8293. Vaccine seroefficacy was 85% (95%CI 80-88%). Conclusion: This is the first field estimate of the seroefficacy of a Vi-TT vaccine and shows that Typbar TCV substantially reduces the number of serologically defined (sub)clinical infections in infants, children and adults. These results support the recent World Health Organisation recommendations for deployment of typhoid conjugate vaccines in high burden areas.

Original publication




Journal article


Clin Infect Dis

Publication Date



anti-Vi antibody, conjugate vaccine, efficacy, polysaccharide, typhoid