Response of appetite and potential appetite regulators following intake of high energy nutritional supplements
© 2015. Background: The net clinical benefit of high-energy nutritional supplements (HENSDs) consumption is lower than expected. Objectives: To investigate the extent to which consumption of oral HENSD in the fasted state reduces energy intake in slim females during consecutive breakfast and lunch, and whether this relates to changes in appetite and metabolic appetite regulators. Design: Twenty three females of 24.4 ± 2.8 years with BMI of 18.2 ± 0.8 kg/m<sup>2</sup> consumed HENSD (2.5 MJ) or PLACEBO (0.4 MJ) in fasted state in a single blind randomized cross-over study. Appetite and metabolic rate measurements and blood collection were conducted prior to and during 240 min after the intake of the supplements. Energy intake was recorded during ad libitum buffet breakfast and lunch served 60 min and 240 min post supplementation respectively. Results: Energy intake during breakfast was significantly (P < 0.01) lower in the HENSD trial but the net cumulative effect on energy intake was 1.07 ± 0.34 MJ higher in the HENSD compared to PLACEBO. Plasma concentration of CCK and PYY and insulin and were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the HENSD trial while appetite measures were not significantly different between HENSD and PLACEBO trials. Correlations for the within participant relations between the responses of plasma hormones and appetite scores were significant (P < 0.05) for PYY and insulin but not CCK. The energy expended above resting metabolic rate was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the HENDS trial but relative increase in energy expenditure was not significantly different between the two trials. Conclusion: Oral high-energy nutritional supplements have a partial and relatively short lived suppressive action on energy intake and can be expected to increase net energy intake by approximately half the energy value of the supplement consumed.