Efficacy of NNRTI-based antiretroviral therapy initiated during acute HIV infection
Gay CL., Mayo AJ., Mfalila CK., Chu H., Barry AC., Kuruc JD., McGee KS., Kerkau M., Sebastian J., Fiscus SA., Margolis DM., Hicks CB., Ferrari G., Eron JJ.
Objective: Characterize responses to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiated during acute HIV infection (AHI). Design: This was a prospective, single-arm evaluation of once-daily, co-formulated emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz initiated during AHI. Methods: The primary endpoint is the proportion of responders with HIV RNA less than 200 copies/ml by week 24. We examined time to viral suppression and CD8 cell activation in relation to baseline participant characteristics. We compared time to viral suppression and viral dynamics using linear mixed-effects models between acutely infected participants and chronically infected controls. Results: Between January 2005 and May 2009, 61 AHI participants were enrolled. Of participants whose enrollment date allowed 24 and 48 weeks of follow-up, 47 of 51 (92%) achieved viral suppression to less than 200 copies/ml by week 24, and 35 of 41 (85.4%) to less than 50 copies/ml by week 48. The median time from ART initiation to suppression below 50 copies/ml was 93 days (range 14-337). Higher HIV RNA levels at ART initiation (P = 0.02), but not time from estimated date of infection to ART initiation (P = 0.86), were associated with longer time to viral suppression. The median baseline frequency of activated CD8CD38HLA-DR T cells was 67% (range 40-95), and was not significantly associated with longer time to viral load suppression (P = 0.15). Viremia declined to less than 50 copies/ml more rapidly in AHI than chronically infected participants. Mixed-model analysis demonstrated similar phase I HIV RNA decay rates between acute and chronically infected participants, and more rapid viral decline in acutely infected participants in phase II. Conclusion: Once-daily emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz initiated during AHI achieves rapid and sustained HIV suppression during this highly infectious period. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.