Invasive pneumococcal disease in England and Wales: Vaccination implications
Sleeman K., Knox K., George R., Miller E., Waight P., Griffiths D., Efstratiou A., Broughton K., Mayon-White RT., Moxon ER., Crook DW.
Knowledge of the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) will aid in planning the use of pneumococcal vaccines. A United Kingdom (UK)-based surveillance in England and Wales (1995-1997) of 11,528 individuals with IPD and a local enhanced surveillance in the Oxford (UK) area (1995-1999) have been analyzed. IPD has a high attack rate in children, with 37.1-48.1 cases per 100,000 infants < 1 year old per year, and in older persons, with 21.2-36.2 cases per 100,000 persons > 65 years old per year, for England, Wales, and Oxford. The 7-valent conjugate vaccine includes serotypes causing ≤79% of IPD in children < 5 years old, but only 66% in adults > 65 years old. The data also indicate that IPD varies by serotype, age, and country, emphasizing that the epidemiology of IPD is heterogeneous and requires continued surveillance.