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  • Web-based cardiac RE habilitatio N alternative for those declining or dropping out of conventional rehabilitation: Results of the WREN feasibility randomised controlled trial

    5 November 2018

    © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2018. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ. Introduction Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is typically delivered in hospital-based classes and is recommended to help people reduce their risk of further cardiac events. However, many eligible people are not completing the programme. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of delivering a web-based CR intervention for those who decline/drop out from usual CR. Intervention A web-based CR programme for 6 months, facilitated with remote support. Methods Two-centre, randomised controlled feasibility trial. Patients were randomly allocated to web-based CR/usual care for 6 months. Data were collected to inform the design of a larger study: recruitment rates, quality of life (MacNew), exercise capacity (incremental shuttle walk test) and mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Feasibility of health utility collection was also evaluated. Results 60 patients were randomised (90% male, mean age 62±9 years, 26% of those eligible). 82% completed all three assessment visits. 78% of the web group completed the programme. Quality of life improved in the web group by a clinically meaningful amount (0.5±1.1 units vs 0.2±0.7 units: control). Exercise capacity improved in both groups but mood did not change in either group. It was feasible to collect health utility data. Conclusions It was feasible to recruit and retention to the end of the study was good. The web group reported important improvements in quality of life. This intervention has the opportunity to increase access to CR for patients who would otherwise not attend. Promising outcomes and recruitment suggest feasibility for a full-scale trial. Trial registration number 10726798.

  • Improved clinical outcome measures of knee pain and function with concurrent resolution of subchondral Bone Marrow Edema Lesion and joint effusion in an osteoarthritic patient following Pentosan Polysulphate Sodium treatment: A case report

    5 November 2018

    © 2017 The Author(s). Background: At present, there are no registered products for the treatment of subchondral Bone Marrow Edema Lesion (BML) and associated knee pain. Patients who do not respond to current anti-inflammatory therapies are left with limited treatment options, and may resort to operative management with Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA). We report the use of Pentosan Polysulphate Sodium (PPS) for the treatment of BMLs of the knee. Case presentation: We report the case of a 70-year-old female with knee osteoarthritis presenting with a high level of knee pain, scoring 8 on the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), and functional limitation demonstrating a poor Lysholm Knee Score of 37. MRI scans of the knee revealed subchondral BML in the medial femoral condyle and medial tibial plateau. The patient was administered a course of Pentosan Polysulphate Sodium (PPS) intramuscularly twice weekly, for 3 weeks. MRI scans 2 weeks post-treatment showed complete resolution of the bone marrow edema at the medial femoral condyle and medial tibial plateau with concomitant recovery from pain (NRS pain score of 0), and a 43% improvement of the Lysholm Knee Score. In addition, marked reduction in joint effusion was also demonstrated in the MRI scan post PPS therapy. Conclusion: The MRI interpretations demonstrate improved clinical outcome measures ensuing therapeutic intervention with PPS, and warranting further investigation into the efficacy of PPS in the treatment of BML associated pain and dysfunction in the osteoarthritic population via randomized controlled trial, or equivalent rigorous methodological technique.

  • Knee instability as the primary cause of failure following Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA): A systematic review on the patient, surgical and implant characteristics of revised TKA patients

    5 November 2018

    © 2017 Elsevier B.V. Background The aim of this review was to systematically assess the current evidence available regarding knee instability after TKA to identify time to failure between primary and revision TKA. In addition, we considered the patient, surgical and implant characteristics of primary TKA patients revised for knee instability, and investigated methods used for knee instability diagnosis. Methods A systematic search of six databases and the unpublished literature was performed. Studies referring to instability in post-operative primary TKA patients, reporting on revision TKA due to instability, and published or available between 2005 to 30-Mar-2015 were eligible for inclusion. Quantitative data for continuous variables were pooled in statistical meta-analyses. Results A total of 1841 unique studies were identified, 42 of which met the selection criteria and a total of 22 studies included in the review. Time to failure between primary and revision TKA was 44.7 months (95% CI [33.8, 55.7]), and the weighted mean age at time of revision surgery was 67.6 years (95% CI [65.38, 69.75]). A gender distribution was identified, with approximately 16.4% more females revised for instability, however this was unable to be corrected for the baseline population. The majority of studies used a combination of radiographic and clinical testing to diagnose knee instability. Conclusion Research on knee instability following primary TKA reported early failure and subsequent revision knee surgery. The need for revision due to instability was frequently reported in a younger patient cohort and most commonly in female TKA patients. Early revision at a younger age highlights the severe implications of an unstable knee.

  • Mid-term migration of a cementless, porous acetabular cup: A 5 year Radiostereometric analysis

    5 November 2018

    © 2017 Prof. PK Surendran Memorial Education Foundation Purpose The aim of the study was to determine the 5 year migratory and wear patterns, adverse events and clinical outcomes of a cementless, porous acetabular cup. Methods RSA imaging of a cohort of 11 patients was retrospective analysed at 5 years post Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA). Changes in pain, function and symptoms of the hip at 5 years post-THA were compared to preoperative and 2 year postoperative assessments on the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and Hip dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS). Results The majority of cup migration occurred up to 6 months and stabilised thereafter (6 months to 5 years, p = 0.091–0.866, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test). The direction of rotation around the 3 axes was evenly distributed among the cups between anterior-posterior rotation, internal-external rotation and increased-decreased inclination. The majority of the cups translated proximally, at an average migration of 0.36 mm (±95%CI 0.17) at 5-years post-THA. Following initial bedding in, up to 6 months, there was no detectable polyethylene wear between 6 months and 5 years. At 5 years postoperatively, a statistically significant difference was observed across all HOOS subscales in comparison to preoperative values, with higher means reported at 5 years (p < 0.001). The total mean HHS displayed a statistically significant improvement, increasing from ‘poor’ preoperatively to ‘good’ at 5 years post-THA. Conclusion Following initial migration between discharge and 6 months, the cementless porous acetabular cup demonstrated a tendency for stabilisation from 6 months up to 5 years post-THA, suggesting good mid-term fixation. Additionally, improvements in clinical outcome measures of pain, function and quality-of-life remained high following THA at 5 years post-surgery.

  • Arthroscopic Chondral Debridement Using Radiofrequency Ablation for Patellofemoral Compartment Pathology

    5 November 2018

    © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America The purpose of this Technical Note is to introduce a surgical technique using a fluid pressure pump, mid-lateral portal, and radiofrequency ablation for visualization, assessment, and subsequent, accurate/adequate removal of patellofemoral articular lesions for the treatment of patellofemoral compartment pathology. With the patient in the supine position, and an inflated thigh tourniquet, standard lateral and medial portals are made. The medial-femoral compartment, notch, lateral-femoral compartment, and patellofemoral compartments are assessed. If pathology is seen within the patellofemoral compartment, a mid-lateral portal is made if chondral pathology cannot be addressed thoroughly. Addressing chondral pathology to achieve chondral stability is then performed using a combination of the radiofrequency ablator and chondrotome. This technique provides greater visibility and access to accurately and thoroughly smooth chondral pathology.

  • The Use of Scoring Systems in Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    5 November 2018

    © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Background The primary purpose of this systematic review was to clarify and quantify scoring system utilization in knee arthroplasty literature. In addition, the study considered the frequency and relationship of score use in articles published across a range of orthopedic journals, and the influence of study design, level of evidence, primary research topic, and study country of origin on the scoring system used. Methods A systematic search of 8 electronic databases was performed to identify publications of clinical studies involving knee arthroplasty, in which a scoring system was used to assess patient outcomes. Results Of the 1994 unique publications identified, 438 met the selection criteria. Identified articles reported a total of 86 scoring systems, 5 of which were reported in greater than 10.0% of included studies. The 1989 Knee Society Score was markedly the most utilized scoring system (58.7%). Use of the Knee Society Score was significantly associated with orthopedic journal impact factor (IF; P =.001), with greater use observed in journals of lower IF. Use of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index escalated with increasing IF; however, no statistically significant association was observed. A preference for scoring systems developed in the country of residence of the first author was also identified. Conclusions A large number of scoring systems are used to assess knee arthroplasty patients; however, 5 scores are consistently reported. By identifying and quantifying scoring system use, this review hopes to stimulate regularity in score usage to allow for improvements in comparability of clinician and patient-reported outcome measures in the knee arthroplasty literature.