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Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels regulate cell excitability and transport K+ ions across membranes. Homotetrameric models of three mammalian Kir channels (Kir1.1, Kir3.1, and Kir6.2) have been generated, using the KirBac3.1 transmembrane and rat Kir3.1 intracellular domain structures as templates. All three models have been explored by 10 ns molecular dynamics simulations in phospholipid bilayers. Analysis of the initial structures revealed conservation of potential lipid interaction residues (Trp/Tyr and Arg/Lys side chains near the lipid headgroup-water interfaces). Examination of the intracellular domains revealed key structural differences between Kir1.1 and Kir6.2 which may explain the difference in channel inhibition by ATP. The behavior of all three models in the MD simulations revealed that they have conformational stability similar to that seen for comparable simulations of, for example, structures derived from cryoelectron microscopy data. Local distortions of the selectivity filter were seen during the simulations, as observed in previous simulations of KirBac and in simulations and structures of KcsA. These may be related to filter gating of the channel. The intracellular hydrophobic gate does not undergo any substantial changes during the simulations and thus remains functionally closed. Analysis of lipid-protein interactions of the Kir models emphasizes the key role of the MO (or "slide") helix which lies approximately parallel to the bilayer-water interface and forms a link between the transmembrane and intracellular domains of the channel. © 2007 American Chemical Society.
© 2017 The Author(s) We explored the role of the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Mice lacking Fh1 in pancreatic β cells (Fh1βKO mice) appear normal for 6–8 weeks but then develop progressive glucose intolerance and diabetes. Glucose tolerance is rescued by expression of mitochondrial or cytosolic FH but not by deletion of Hif1α or Nrf2. Progressive hyperglycemia in Fh1βKO mice led to dysregulated metabolism in β cells, a decrease in glucose-induced ATP production, electrical activity, cytoplasmic [Ca2+]i elevation, and GSIS. Fh1 loss resulted in elevated intracellular fumarate, promoting succination of critical cysteines in GAPDH, GMPR, and PARK 7/DJ-1 and cytoplasmic acidification. Intracellular fumarate levels were increased in islets exposed to high glucose and in islets from human donors with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The impaired GSIS in islets from diabetic Fh1βKO mice was ameliorated after culture under normoglycemic conditions. These studies highlight the role of FH and dysregulated mitochondrial metabolism in T2D. Adam et al. have shown that progressive diabetes develops if fumarate hydratase is deleted in mouse pancreatic β cells. Such β cells exhibit elevated fumarate and protein succination and show progressively reduced ATP production and insulin secretion. The depleted insulin response to glucose recovers when diabetic islets are cultured in reduced glucose.
ATP-sensitive K+channels are the target for K+channel openers such as pinacidil. These channels are formed from poreforming Kir6.2 and regulatory sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits. Pinacidil activates channels containing SUR2A (heart, skeletal muscle), but not those containing SUR1 (β cells). Surprisingly, binding of the pinacidil analog [3H]P1075 is dependent on added nucleotides, yet in electrophysiological studies, pinacidil is effective in the absence of intracellular nucleotides. To determine the reason for this anomaly, we examined the functional interactions between pinacidil (or P1075) and nucleotides by expressing cloned Kir6.2/SUR2A channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Both pinacidil and P1075 activated macroscopic Kir6.2/SUR2A currents in the absence of added nucleotide, but the presence of intracellular ATP or ADP slowed the off-rate of the response. Mutation of the Walker A lysine in a single nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of SUR2A (K707A in NBD1, K1348A in NBD2), abolished this action of nucleotide. The K1348A mutation prevented stimulation by MgADP but had little effect on the amplitude of the pinacidil response. In contrast, Kir6.2/SUR2A- K707A currents were activated by MgADP, but only responded to pinacidil in the presence of Mg-nucleotide. Off-rates in the absence (or presence) of nucleotide were slower for the pinacidil analog P1075 than for pinacidil, consistent with the higher affinity of P1075. We suggest that slowing of P1075 dissociation by nucleotide enables binding to be detected.
No evidence for mutations in a putative subunit of the β-cell ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K-ATP Channel) in Japanese NIDDM patients
The ATP-sensitive K channel (K-ATP channel) in pancreatic β cells is believed to play a crucial role in glucose stimulated insulin release. We investigated whether defects in the recently cloned gene for a putative subunit of this channel (KATP-2) could be a cause of diabetes in Japanese patients. The coding region of this β-cell type channel gene was investigated in 192 diabetics with a family history of the disorder by single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Two silent polymorphisms were found and confirmed by sequencing, but no missense or nonsense mutations were detected. The allele frequency of the polymorphisms was compared with 96 control subjects without a family history of the disease, and no clear difference was found. These results indicate that genetic defects of the KATP-2 channel may not be a major cause of diabetes in Japan. © 1995 Academic Press. All rights reserved. © 1995 Academic Press, Inc.
Characterization and variation of a human inwardly-rectifying K-channel gene (KCNJ6): a putative ATP-sensitive K-channel subunit
The ATP-sensitive K-channel plays a central role in insulin release from pancreatic β-cells. We report here the cloning of the gene (KCNJ6) encoding a putative subunit of a human ATP-sensitive K-channel expressed in brain and β-cells, and characterisation of its exon-intron structure. Screening of a somatic cell mapping panel and fluorescent in situ hybridization place the gene on chromosome 21 (21q22.1-22.2). Analysis of single-stranded conformational polymorphisms revealed the presence of two silent polymorphisms (Pro-149: CCG-CCA and Asp328: GAC-GAT) with similar frequencies in normal and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. © 1995.
Functional analysis of a structural model of the ATP-binding site of the K<inf>ATP</inf> channel Kir6.2 subunit
ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels couple cell metabolism to electrical activity by regulating K+ flux across the plasma membrane. Channel closure is mediated by ATP, which binds to the pore-forming subunit (Kir6.2). Here we use homology modelling and ligand docking to construct a model of the Kir6.2 tetramer and identify the ATP-binding site. The model is consistent with a large amount of functional data and was further tested by mutagenesis. Ligand binding occurs at the interface between two subunits. The phosphate tail of ATP interacts with R201 and K185 in the C-terminus of one subunit, and with R50 in the N-terminus of another; the N6 atom of the adenine ring interacts with E179 and R301 in the same subunit. Mutation of residues lining the binding pocket reduced ATP-dependent channel inhibition. The model also suggests that interactions between the C-terminus of one subunit and the 'slide helix' of the adjacent subunit may be involved in ATP-dependent gating. Consistent with a role in gating, mutations in the slide helix bias the intrinsic channel conformation towards the open state.
Sulfonylureas are widely used to treat non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. These drugs exert their hypoglycaemic effects by stimulating insulin secretion from the pancreatic β-cell. Their primary mechanism of action is to close ATP-sensitive K-channels in the β-cell plasma membrane, and so initiate a chain of events which results in insulin release. Recent studies have shown that the β-cell ATP-sensitive K-channel is a complex of two proteins: a pore-forming subunit (Kir6.2) and a drug-binding subunit (SUR1) which functions as the receptor for sulfonylureas. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanism of sulfonylurea action focusing on the relationship between the sulfonylurea receptor and the K-ATP channel. Earlier studies are also re-examined in the light of new findings.
A new subtype of autosomal dominant diabetes attributable to a mutation in the gene for sulfonylurea receptor 1
Background: ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are major regulators of glucose-induced insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. We have described a dominant heterozygous mutation - E1506K - in the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) gene (ABCC8) in a Finnish family, which leads to congenital hyperinsulinaemia due to reduction of KATP-channel activity. We aimed to characterise glucose metabolism in adults heterozygous for the E1506K mutation. Methods: Glucose tolerance was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test, insulin secretion by the intravenous glucose tolerance test and hyperglycaemic clamp, and insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp in 11 people heterozygous for the E1506K mutation and 19 controls. Findings: Four people who were heterozygous for the SUR1 E1506K mutation had diabetes, five had impaired glucose tolerance, one had impaired fasting glucose, and one had normal glucose tolerance. Although glucose-induced, first-phase insulin secretion was normal in children younger than 10 years of age who were heterozygous for the SUR1 E1506K mutation (n=2; 66 and 334 pmol/L), it fell rapidly after puberty (n=3; 12-32 pmol/L), and was almost completely lost in adulthood (n=11; 12-32 pmol/L). Furthermore, these heterozygous people had a substantial reduction in maximum glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during hyperglycemic clamp (carriers without diabetes 422 pmol/L; carriers with diabetes 97 pmol/L). By contrast, insulin sensitivity (M/I value) was normal in carriers of the E1506K mutation who did not have diabetes and was reduced by 15% in those who were heterozygous with diabetes (0·07 in those without diabetes and 0·05 in those with the disorder; not significantly different from controls). Interpretation: Heterozygous E1506K substitution in the SUR1 gene causes congenital hyperinsulinism in infancy, loss of insulin secretory capacity in early adulthood, and diabetes in middle-age. This variant represents a new subtype of autosomal dominant diabetes.
Insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells is impaired in all forms of diabetes. The resultant hyperglycaemia has deleterious effects on many tissues, including β-cells. Here we show that chronic hyperglycaemia impairs glucose metabolism and alters expression of metabolic genes in pancreatic islets. In a mouse model of human neonatal diabetes, hyperglycaemia results in marked glycogen accumulation, and increased apoptosis in β-cells. Sulphonylurea therapy rapidly normalizes blood glucose levels, dissipates glycogen stores, increases autophagy and restores β-cell metabolism. Insulin therapy has the same effect but with slower kinetics. Similar changes are observed in mice expressing an activating glucokinase mutation, in in vitro models of hyperglycaemia, and in islets from type-2 diabetic patients. Altered β-cell metabolism may underlie both the progressive impairment of insulin secretion and reduced β-cell mass in diabetes. r The Author(s) 2016.
Phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) is an activator of mammalian inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels. Multiscale simulations, via a sequential combination of coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics, enabled exploration of the interactions of PIP2 molecules within the inner leaflet of a lipid bilayer membrane with possible binding sites on Kir channels. Three Kir channel structures were investigated: X-ray structures of KirBac1.1 and of a Kir3.1-KirBac1.3 chimera and a homology model of Kir6.2. Coarse-grained simulations of the Kir channels in PIP2-containing lipid bilayers identified the PIP2-binding site on each channel. These models of the PIP2-channel complexes were refined by conversion to an atomistic representation followed by molecular dynamics simulation in a lipid bilayer. All three channels were revealed to contain a conserved binding site at the N-terminal end of the slide (M0) helix, at the interface between adjacent subunits of the channel. This binding site agrees with mutagenesis data and is in the proximity of the site occupied by a detergent molecule in the Kir chimera channel crystal. Polar contacts in the coarse-grained simulations corresponded to long-lived electrostatic and H-bonding interactions between the channel and PIP2 in the atomistic simulations, enabling identification of key side chains. © 2009 American Chemical Society.
NEM modification prevents high-affinity ATP binding to the first nucleotide binding fold of the sulphonylurea receptor, SUR1
Pancreatic β-cell ATP-sensitive potassium channels, composed of SUR1 and Kir6.2 subunits, serve as a sensor for intracellular nucleotides and regulate glucose-induced insulin secretion. To learn more about the interaction of SUR1 with nucleotides, we examined the effect of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) modification. Photoaffinity labeling of SUR1 with 5 μM 8-azido-[α-32P]ATP or 8-azido-[γ-32P]ATP was inhibited by NEM with K(i) of 1.8 μM and 2.4 μM, and Hill coefficients of 0.94 and 1.1, respectively. However, when the cysteine residue in the Walker A motif of the first nucleotide binding fold (NBF1) of SUR1 was replaced with serine (C717S), photoaffinity labeling was not inhibited by 100 μM NEM. These results suggest that NBF1 of SUR1 has a NEM-sensitive structure similar to that of NBF1 of MDR1, a multidrug transporter, and confirm NBF1 as the high-affinity ATP binding site on SUR1. Copyright (C) 1999 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.
In the present study we have determined the molecular mass of the β-cell sulfonylurea receptor in its native form by two different experimental approaches; gel filtration chromatography and radiation inactivation analysis. We first confirmed that the denatured photolabelled MIN6 β-cell receptor had a molecular size of 141 ± 2 kDa (mean ± S.E., n = 8). Under non-denaturing conditions, using gel filtration chromatography, apparent molecular masses of 166 ± 1 kDa (mean ± S.E., n = 3) and 182 ± 5 kDa (mean ± S.E., n = 4) were determined for the photoaffinity-labelled and unlabelled sulfonylurea receptor, respectively. We conclude that in the solubilized state the receptor exists as a monomer. Radiation inactivation analysis indicated that the receptor has a target size of 250 ± 30 kDa (mean ± S.E., n = 7). This value for the molecular mass is larger than that obtained from SDS-PAGE following photolabelling of the receptor (141 kDa) suggesting that the β-cell sulfonylurea receptor is composed of more than one subunit in the native membrane. © 1994.
KirBac3.1 belongs to a family of transmembrane potassium (K+) channels that permit the selective flow of K-ions across biological membranes and thereby regulate cell excitability. They are crucial for a wide range of biological processes and mutations in their genes cause multiple human diseases. Opening and closing (gating) of Kir channels may occur spontaneously but is modulated by numerous intracellular ligands that bind to the channel itself. These include lipids (such as PIP2), G-proteins, nucleotides (such as ATP) and ions (e.g. H+, Mg2+, Ca2+). We have used high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) to examine KirBac3.1 in two different configurations. AFM imaging of the cytoplasmic surface of KirBac3.1 embedded in a lipid bilayer has allowed visualization of the tetrameric assembly of the ligand-binding domain. In the absence of Mg2+, the four subunits appeared as four protrusions surrounding a central depression corresponding to the cytoplasmic pore. They did not display 4-fold symmetry, but formed a dimer-of-dimers with 2-fold symmetry. Upon addition of Mg2+, a marked rearrangement of the intracellular ligand-binding domains was observed: the four protrusions condensed into a single protrusion per tetramer, and there was an accompanying increase in protrusion height. The central cavity within the four intracellular domains also disappeared on addition of Mg2+, indicating constriction of the cytoplasmic pore. These structural changes are likely transduced to the transmembrane helices, which gate the K+ channel. This is the first time AFM has been used as an interactive tool to study K+ channels. It has enabled us to directly measure the conformational changes in the protein surface produced by ligand binding. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Disease progression and search for monogenic diabetes among children with new onset type 1 diabetes negative for ICA, GAD- and IA-2 Antibodies
Background: To investigate disease progression the first 12 months after diagnosis in children with type 1 diabetes negative (AAB negative) for pancreatic autoantibodies [islet cell autoantibodies(ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) and insulinoma-associated antigen-2 antibodies (IA-2A)]. Furthermore the study aimed at determining whether mutations in KCNJ11, ABCC8, HNF1A, HNF4A or INS are common in AAB negative diabetes.Materials and methods: In 261 newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes, we measured residual β-cell function, ICA, GADA, and IA-2A at 1, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. The genes KCNJ11, ABCC8, HNF1A, HNF4A and INS were sequenced in subjects AAB negative at diagnosis. We expressed recombinant K-ATP channels in Xenopus oocytes to analyse the functional effects of an ABCC8 mutation.Results: Twenty-four patients (9.1%) tested AAB negative after one month. Patients, who were AAB-negative throughout the 12-month period, had higher residual β-cell function (P = 0.002), lower blood glucose (P = 0.004), received less insulin (P = 0.05) and had lower HbA 1c (P = 0.02) 12 months after diagnosis. One patient had a heterozygous mutation leading to the substitution of arginine at residue 1530 of SUR1 (ABCC8) by cysteine. Functional analyses of recombinant K-ATP channels showed that R1530C markedly reduced the sensitivity of the K-ATP channel to inhibition by MgATP. Morover, the channel was highly sensitive to sulphonylureas. However, there was no effect of sulfonylurea treatment after four weeks on 1.0-1.2 mg/kg/24 h glibenclamide.Conclusion: GAD, IA-2A, and ICA negative children with new onset type 1 diabetes have slower disease progression as assessed by residual beta-cell function and improved glycemic control 12 months after diagnosis. One out of 24 had a mutation in ABCC8, suggesting that screening of ABCC8 should be considered in patients with AAB negative type 1 diabetes. © 2010 Pörksen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Muscle dysfunction caused by a K<inf>ATP</inf> channel mutation in neonatal diabetes is neuronal in origin
Gain-of-function mutations in Kir6.2 (KCNJ11), the pore-forming subunit of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel, cause neonatal diabetes. Many patients also suffer from hypotonia (weak and flaccid muscles) and balance problems. The diabetes arises from suppressed insulin secretion by overactive KATP channels in pancreatic β-cells, but the source of themotor phenotype is unknown. By using mice carrying a human Kir6.2 mutation (Val59→Met59) targeted to either muscle or nerve, we show that analogous motor impairments originate in the central nervous system rather than in muscle or peripheral nerves. We also identify locomotor hyperactivity as a feature of KATP channel overactivity. These findings suggest that drugs targeted against neuronal, rather than muscle, KATP channels are needed to treat the motor deficits and that such drugs require high blood-brain barrier permeability.
Background:Gain-of-function mutations in the ATP-sensitive potassium channel can cause permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM) or neonatal diabetes accompanied by a constellation of neurological symptoms (iDEND syndrome). Studies of a mouse model of iDEND syndrome revealed that cerebellar Purkinje cell electrical activity was impaired and that the mice exhibited poor motor coordination. In this study, we probed the hand-eye coordination of PNDM and iDEND patients using visual tracking tasks to see if poor motor coordination is also a feature of the human disease.Methods:Control participants (n = 14), patients with iDEND syndrome (n = 6 or 7), and patients with PNDM (n = 7) completed three computer-based tasks in which a moving target was tracked with a joystick-controlled cursor. Patients with PNDM and iDEND were being treated with sulphonylurea drugs at the time of testing.Results:No differences were seen between PNDM patients and controls. Patients with iDEND syndrome were significantly less accurate than controls in two of the three tasks. The greatest differences were seen when iDEND patients tracked blanked targets, i.e. when predictive tracking was required. In this task, iDEND patients incurred more discrepancy errors (p = 0.009) and more velocity errors (p = 0.009) than controls.Conclusions:These results identify impaired hand-eye coordination as a new clinical feature of iDEND. The aetiology of this feature is likely to involve cerebellar dysfunction. The data further suggest that sulphonylurea doses that control the diabetes of these patients may be insufficient to fully correct their neurological symptoms. © 2013 McTaggart et al.
Ion channels are membrane proteins, found in virtually all cells, that are of crucial physiological importance. In the past decade, an explosion in the number of crystal structures of ion channels has led to a marked increase in our understanding of how ion channels open and close, and select between permeant ions. There has been a parallel advance in research on channelopathies (diseases resulting from impaired channel function), and mutations in over 60 ion-channel genes are now known to cause human disease. Characterization of their functional consequences has afforded unprecedented and unexpected insights into ion-channel mechanisms and physiological roles. ©2006 Nature Publishing Group.