Glycemic control is an important modifiable risk factor for uveitis in patients with diabetes: A retrospective cohort study establishing clinical risk and ophthalmic disease burden
Ansari AS., de Lusignan S., Hinton W., Munro N., Taylor S., McGovern A.
© 2018 Elsevier Inc. Aim: To characterize the risk uveitis, scleritis or episcleritis in relation to diabetes, glycaemic control, and co-existence of retinopathy. Methods: Using the Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre database, we established the prevalence of acute uveitis and scleritis or episcleritis over a six-year period among populations without(n = 889,856) and with diabetes(n = 48,584). We evaluated the impact of glycaemic control on disease risk. Regression modeling was used to identify associations, adjusting for clinical and demographic confounders. Results: Incidence of acute uveitis was higher among patients with diabetes; Type 1 OR:2.01 (95% CI 1.18–3.41; p = 0.009), and Type 2 OR:1.23 (1.05–1.44; p = 0.01). Glycaemic control was established as an important effect modifier for uveitis risk, whereby those with poorer control suffered higher disease burden. Results confirmed a dose-response relationship such that very poor glycaemic control OR:4.72 (2.58–8.65; p < 0.001), poor control OR:1.57 (1.05–2.33; p = 0.03) and moderate control OR:1.20 (0.86–1.68; p = 0.29) were predictive of uveitis. Similar results were observed when evaluating retinopathy staging: proliferative retinopathy OR:2.42 (1.25–4.69; p = 0.01). These results were not maintained for scleritis or episcleritis. Conclusion: Acute uveitis is more common in patients with diabetes; at highest risk are those with type 1 disease with poor glycaemic control. Glycaemic improvements may prevent recurrence.