Adaptive platform trials: definition, design, conduct and reporting considerations
Angus DC., Alexander BM., Berry S., Buxton M., Lewis R., Paoloni M., Webb SAR., Arnold S., Barker A., Berry DA., Bonten MJM., Brophy M., Butler C., Cloughesy TF., Derde LPG., Esserman LJ., Ferguson R., Fiore L., Gaffey SC., Gaziano JM., Giusti K., Goossens H., Heritier S., Hyman B., Krams M., Larholt K., LaVange LM., Lavori P., Lo AW., London AJ., Manax V., McArthur C., O’Neill G., Parmigiani G., Perlmutter J., Petzold EA., Ritchie C., Rowan KM., Seymour CW., Shapiro NI., Simeone DM., Smith B., Spellberg B., Stern AD., Trippa L., Trusheim M., Viele K., Wen PY., Woodcock J.
© 2019, Springer Nature Limited. Researchers, clinicians, policymakers and patients are increasingly interested in questions about therapeutic interventions that are difficult or costly to answer with traditional, free-standing, parallel-group randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Examples include scenarios in which there is a desire to compare multiple interventions, to generate separate effect estimates across subgroups of patients with distinct but related conditions or clinical features, or to minimize downtime between trials. In response, researchers have proposed new RCT designs such as adaptive platform trials (APTs), which are able to study multiple interventions in a disease or condition in a perpetual manner, with interventions entering and leaving the platform on the basis of a predefined decision algorithm. APTs offer innovations that could reshape clinical trials, and several APTs are now funded in various disease areas. With the aim of facilitating the use of APTs, here we review common features and issues that arise with such trials, and offer recommendations to promote best practices in their design, conduct, oversight and reporting.