Differential uptake of subfractions of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by THP-1 macrophages
Palmer AM., Nova E., Anil E., Jackson K., Bateman P., Wolstencroft E., Williams CM., Yaqoob P.
It is well known that raised plasma triglycerides (TG) are positively linked to the development of coronary heart disease. However, triglycerides circulate in a range of distinct lipoprotein subfractions and the relative atherogenicity of these subfractions is not clear. In this study, three fractions of triglyceride rich lipoprotein (TRL) were isolated from normolipidaemic males according to their differing Svedberg flotation (S f) rates: chylomicron (CM, Sf > 400), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-1 (Sf 60-400) and VLDL-2 (Sf 20-60). These fractions were incubated with THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages for determination of cholesterol and TG accumulation, in the presence and absence of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) inhibitor orlistat. Expression of LDL receptor related protein (LRP) and apolipoprotein B48 receptor (apoB48R) was also examined in both differentiating monocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages, incubated with TRL. VLDL-1 caused a significantly greater accumulation of TG within macrophages compared to VLDL-2. Binding studies also tended to show a greater preference for VLDL-1. No change in expression of LRP or apoB48R was observed in fully differentiated macrophages incubated with VLDL-1, VLDL-2 or CM, although a greater expression of LRP mRNA was observed in differentiating monocytes exposed to VLDL-1, compared to those incubated with CM or VLDL-2. TG loading in response to all three TRL fractions was blocked by orlistat, suggesting that it is likely that the major pathway for uptake of TG was hydrolysis by LPL. Calculations suggested that direct uptake of particles accounts for between 12 and 25% of total TAG uptake. In conclusion, THP monocyte-derived macrophages demonstrate a preference for VLDL-1, both through the LPL pathway and by direct uptake of whole particles. © 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.