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Background: Reactive arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), Guillain-Barré syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease may be sequelae of Campylobacter or non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and antibiotics may increase the risk of gastrointestinal infections (GII); however, their impact on sequelae onset is unclear. We investigated the incidence of sequelae, their association with antibiotics and PPI prescription, and assessed the economic impact on the NHS. Methods: Data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink for patients consulting their GP for Campylobacter or NTS infection, during 2000–2015, were linked to hospital, mortality, and Index of Multiple Deprivation data. We estimated the incidence of sequelae and deaths in the 12 months following GII. We conducted logistic regression modelling for the adjusted association with prescriptions. We compared differences in resource use and costs pre- and post-infection amongst patients with and without sequelae. Findings: Of 20,471 patients with GII (Campylobacter 17,838), less than 2% (347) developed sequelae, with IBS (268) most common. Amongst Campylobacter patients, those with prescriptions for PPI within 12 months before and cephalosporins within 7-days before/after infection had elevated risk of IBS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.1, 1.5–2.9) and (aOR 3.6, 1.1–11.7) respectively. Campylobacter sequelae led to ∼ £1.3 million, (£750,000, £1.7 million) in additional annual NHS expenditure. Interpretation: Sequelae of Campylobacter and NTS infections are rare but associated with increased NHS costs. Prior prescription of PPI may be a modifiable risk factor. Incidence of sequelae, healthcare resource use and costs are essential parameters for future burden of disease studies.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of Infection

Publication Date





221 - 230