Liver-Directed Therapies for Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
Clift AK., Frilling A.
Purpose of Review: To comprehensively synthesise and appraise the available evidence regarding therapies for metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms that exploit the hepatic vasculature to deliver therapy to liver metastases. Recent Findings: Various techniques including transarterial embolisation/chemoembolisation (TAE/TACE) and selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT, also termed radioembolisation [RE]) have been examined in patents with neuroendocrine liver metastases. Variations in the radioactive agents for selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) have been explored, such as the use of Holmium-166, in addition to more established agents such as Yttrium-90. Recent trials have examined the safety and efficacy of combining liver-targeted therapy with systemic treatments, such as peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. Summary: More retrospective case series of liver-directed modalities will not provide additional knowledge. Randomised clinical trials have begun to compare the efficacy of different forms of liver-directed therapies, and also their combination with systemic treatment. Their results are expected to guide optimal treatment sequencing within multimodal concepts.