Dietary Intake and Eating Behaviours of Obese New Zealand Children and Adolescents Enrolled in a Community-Based Intervention Programme.
Anderson YC., Wynter LE., Butler MS., Grant CC., Stewart JM., Cave TL., Wild CEK., Derraik JGB., Cutfield WS., Hofman PL.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe dietary intake and eating behaviours of obese children and adolescents, and also to determine how these differ in Indigenous versus non-Indigenous children at enrolment in an obesity programme. METHODS: Baseline dietary intake and eating behaviour records were assessed from those enrolled in a clinical unblinded randomised controlled trial of a multi-disciplinary intervention. The setting was a community-based obesity programme in Taranaki, New Zealand. Children or adolescents who were enrolled from January 2012 to August 2014, with a BMI ≥98th percentile or >91st centile with weight-related comorbidities were eligible. RESULTS: 239 participants (45% Māori, 45% NZ Europeans, 10% other ethnicities), aged 5-17 years were assessed. Two-thirds of participants experienced hyperphagia and half were not satiated after a meal. Comfort eating was reported by 62% of participants, and daily energy intake was above the recommended guidelines for 54%. Fruit and vegetable intake was suboptimal compared with the recommended 5 servings per day (mean 3.5 [SD = 1.9] servings per day), and the mean weekly breakfasts were less than the national average (5.9 vs 6.5; p<0.0001). Median sweet drink intake amongst Māori was twice that of NZ Europeans (250 vs 125 ml per day; p = 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: There was a concerning prevalence of abnormal eating behaviours and significant differences in dietary intake between obese participants and their national counterparts. Ethnic differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants were also present, especially in relation to sweet drink consumption. Eating behaviours, especially sweet drink consumption and fruit/vegetable intake need to be addressed.