Two-year outcomes of Whānau Pakari, a multi-disciplinary assessment and intervention for children and adolescents with weight issues: A randomized clinical trial
Anderson YC., Wynter LE., O'Sullivan NA., Wild CEK., Grant CC., Cave TL., Derraik JGB., Hofman PL.
Objective: To determine whether 12-month BMI SDS reductions persisted at 24 months in a multi-disciplinary assessment and intervention program for children and adolescents with obesity, and whether secondary outcomes improved. Methods: This was a community-based 12-month RCT in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Eligible participants were aged 5 to 16 years with BMI ≥98th centile or BMI >91st centile with weight-related comorbidities. The low-intensity control received comprehensive home-based baseline assessments and advice, and 6-monthly follow-up. The high-intensity intervention received the same assessments and advice, but also weekly multidisciplinary sessions. Primary outcome was BMI SDS at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included cardiovascular and metabolic markers. Results: 121 participants (60% of participants at baseline) were assessed at 24 months. BMI SDS reduction at 12 months was lost at 24 months in the modified intention-to-treat analysis [Control −0.03 (95%CI −0.14, 0.09) and Intervention −0.02 (−0.12, 0.08); P =.93]. However, sweet drink intake was reduced, water intake increased, and there were improvements in cardiovascular fitness in the high-intensity intervention. ≥70% attendance in the high-intensity intervention resulted in a persistent BMI SDS reduction of −0.22 after 24 months (95%CI −0.38, −0.06). Conclusions: This trial was negative in terms of primary outcome at 24 months. However, high engagement led to sustained treatment effect, and there were multiple improvements in health measures.