Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I and risk of 25 common conditions: outcome-wide analyses in the UK Biobank study
Papier K., Knuppel A., Perez-Cornago A., Watts EL., Tong TYN., Schmidt JA., Allen N., Key TJ., Travis RC.
While there is strong epidemiological evidence that circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is associated with a higher risk of several cancers, little is known about its association with non-cancer outcomes. We investigated associations of circulating IGF-I with risk of 25 common conditions, other than cancer, in a large British cohort. Study participants were 318,749 middle-aged adults enrolled in the UK Biobank Study. Serum IGF-I concentration was measured in samples collected at baseline (2006–2010), and re-measured in 12,334 participants after an average of 4.3 years. We followed-up participants over an average of 11.5 years by linking to hospital admissions and mortality registries. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between circulating IGF-I and 25 common conditions, using the repeated IGF-I measurements to correct for regression dilution bias. After correction for multiple testing (P < 0.002), IGF-I was positively associated with carpal tunnel syndrome (HR per 5 nmol/l higher concentration = 1.12, 95% CI 1.08–1.16), and inversely associated with varicose veins (0.90, 0.85–0.95), cataracts (0.97, 0.95–0.99), diabetes (0.92, 0.90–0.95), and iron deficiency anaemia (0.90, 0.86–0.93). The associations for cataracts and diabetes attenuated when restricted to cases diagnosed after five or more years of follow-up, suggesting that these associations were likely affected by reverse causality. Higher IGF-I concentration might be associated with the risk for several conditions, but genetic studies are needed to clarify which associations may be causal.