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Background & objectives: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the leading causes of mortality in developing countries, however, evidence from some geographical areas of India is scantly available on its risk factors. Other than diabetes and hypertension, several personal and environmental factors are also associated with CKD. Methods: A population-based case-control study was conducted over a period of 12 months in two high CKD reporting districts of Odisha, India. A total of 236 participants, 1:2 age- and sex-matched cases (83):controls (153), were included. Various factors were modelled with univariate and multivariable conditional logistic regression and analyzed using the Bayesian method in STATA SE v.12. Results: Among the study cases, about 81 per cent were male and about 25 per cent were aged <40 yr. CKD-associated risk factors were hypertension for more than five years [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=4.24; 95% credible interval: 1.23-10.05], scheduled tribe/caste (aOR=2.81; 1.09-5.95), use of tube well/bore well water for drinking (aOR=1.21; 1.02-1.43), consumption of locally made alcohol (aOR=1.09; 1.02-1.17) and eating red meat and vegetarian diet with (aOR=1.24; 1.12-1.39) and (aOR=1.09; 1.04-1.14), respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: The presence of CKD among younger age groups and association of multiple factors including personal and environmental suggest for more research to establish the cause and effect relation of these factors.

Original publication




Journal article


Indian J Med Res

Publication Date





90 - 98


Case–control, India, Odisha, chronic kidney disease, risk factor, Bayes Theorem, Case-Control Studies, Cross-Sectional Studies, Humans, India, Male, Prevalence, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic, Risk Factors