Longitudinal Associations Between Fat-Derived Dietary Patterns and Early Markers of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in the UK Biobank Study.
Brayner B., Keske MA., Kaur G., Islam SMS., Perez-Cornago A., Piernas C., Livingstone KM.
Background Although the impact of dietary fats on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is widely researched, longitudinal associations between dietary patterns (DPs) based on fat type and early markers of CVD risk remain unclear. Methods and Results UK Biobank participants (46.9% men, mean age 55 years) with data on early markers of CVD risk (n=12 706) were followed longitudinally (2014-2020; mean 8.4 years). Two DPs (DP1, DP2) were derived using reduced rank regression (response variables: monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and saturated fat based on two 24-hour dietary assessments. Multivariable logistic and linear regression were used to investigate associations between DPs and odds of elevated CVD risk (using the nonlaboratory Framingham Risk Score) and changes in early CVD markers, respectively. DP1 (characterized by higher nuts and seeds and lower fruit and legumes intake) was positively correlated with saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, and polyunsaturated fat; DP2 (characterized by higher butter and high-fat cheese, lower nuts and seeds intake) was positively correlated with saturated fat and negatively with polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat. DP2 was associated with slightly higher odds of elevated CVD risk (odds ratio, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.00-1.07]). DP1 was associated with higher diastolic blood pressure (β, 0.20 [95% CI, 0.01-0.37]) and lower cardiac index (β, -0.02 [95% CI, -0.04 to -0.01]); DP2 was associated with higher carotid intima medial thickness (β, 1.80 [95% CI, 0.01-3.59]) and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (β, -0.15 [95% CI, -0.24 to -0.07]) and cardiac index (β, -0.01 [95% CI, -0.02 to -0.01]). Conclusions This study suggests small but statistically significant associations between DPs based on fat type and some early markers of CVD risk. Further research is needed to confirm these associations.