Armodafinil to reduce the sleepiness related side-effects of sleep restriction therapy being used to treat insomnia disorder: An open label clinical trial pilot study compared with historical controls
Judge DJ., Miller CB., Bartlett DJ., Jomaa I., Wong KKW., Saini B., Semsarian CR., Espie CA., Kyle SD., Grunstein RR., Yee BJ., Marshall NS.
Sleep restriction therapy (SRT) is an effective stand-alone behavioural intervention for insomnia disorder. However, its daytime side effects, particularly sleepiness, may be troubling for patients and/or may be a necessary part of the patient's treatment journey. This pilot trial aims to explore the potential benefit of armodafinil, a wakefulness promoter. Patients were treated with SRT with open label adjunctive armodafinil (150 mg/day). Thirty-three patients from previous studies that have undergone exactly the same SRT intervention acted as controls. The primary outcome measure was the insomnia severity index (ISI), and secondary outcomes were the Epworth sleepiness scale, sleep restriction adherence scale (SRAS), and safety from baseline through to 12 weeks. We recruited 25 patients into the trial. Data for the primary end point (ISI at 12 weeks) was available for 20 of the participants. The baseline insomnia severity index was 20.2 (SD 3.3) and decreased to 9.1 (SE 1.1), with no change, to 10.2 and 11.2 at weeks 6 and 12 respectively (all p > 0.05 compared with baseline). The insomnia severity index values for armodafinil patients were statistically inferior to historical controls at the primary time point of 12 weeks (11.2 vs. 6.7, p < 0.01). Sleep restriction therapy plus armodafinil treatment was associated with frequent minor side effects but was generally safe and acceptable to patients. Sleep restriction therapy was associated with a robust clinical response in the insomnia severity index values for insomnia patients. Based upon historical control data, armodafinil does not appear to have beneficial adjunctive effects in addition to sleep restriction therapy alone.