Acceptability of integrating smoking cessation treatment into routine care for people with mental illness: A qualitative study.
Sawyer K., Fredman Stein K., Jacobsen P., Freeman TP., Blackwell AKM., Metcalfe C., Kessler D., Munafò MR., Aveyard P., Taylor GMJ.
INTRODUCTION: Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPTs) Services could offer smoking cessation treatment to improve physical and psychological outcomes for service users, but it currently does not. This study aimed to understand participants' views and experiences of receiving a novel smoking cessation intervention as part of the ESCAPE trial (intEgrating Smoking Cessation treatment As part of usual Psychological care for dEpression and anxiety). We used the Capability, Opportunity and Motivation Model of Behaviour (COM-B) to understand the (i) acceptability of the integrated smoking cessation treatment, (ii) views of psychological well-being practitioners' (PWPs) ability to deliver the smoking cessation treatment and (iii) positive and negative impacts of smoking cessation treatment. METHODS: This was a qualitative study embedded within a feasibility randomized-controlled trial (ESCAPE) in primary care services in the United Kingdom (IAPT). Thirty-six participants (53% female) from both usual care and intervention arms of the ESCAPE trial, including both quitters and nonquitters, were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using a framework approach to thematic analysis, using the COM-B as a theoretical frame. RESULTS: Psychological Capability: Integrated smoking cessation treatment was acceptable and encouraged participants to reflect on their mental health. Some participants found it difficult to understand nicotine withdrawal symptoms. MOTIVATION: Participants were open to change during the event of presenting to IAPT. Some described being motivated to take part in the intervention by curiosity, to see whether quitting smoking would help their mental health. Physical Opportunity: IAPT has a natural infrastructure for supporting integrated treatment, but there were some barriers such as session duration and interventions feeling segmented. Social Opportunity: Participants viewed PWPs as having good interpersonal skills to deliver a smoking cessation intervention. CONCLUSION: People with common mental illness generally accepted integrated smoking cessation and mental health treatment. Smoking cessation treatment fits well within IAPT's structure; however, there are barriers to implementation. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Before data collection, we consulted with people with lived experience of smoking and/or mental illness and lay public members regarding the aims, design and interview schedules. After analysis, two people with lived experience of smoking and mental illness individually gave feedback on the final themes and quotes.