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In response to extreme violence and psychological abuse, survivors of Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking can experience complex mental health problems. Despite being a major public health issue, the evidence base for post-slavery mental health support needs and service provision is lacking. The aim of this study was to scope the mental health provision available to survivors globally. A single point-in-time, Internet-based scoping study of on-line evidence sources was performed, guided by Levac and colleagues’ six-staged framework. Service providers meeting inclusion criteria were 325. Most were located in Asia and South America, catered for a female population, and could be categorized as Christian Faith Based. Two overarching themes (Characteristics of Provision and Types of Mental Health Support) accounted for the results, each including ten sub-themes. Survivors’ mental healthcare was found to be informed by various models and to exist within a nexus of care whereby several services are offered to different vulnerable populations. Little information of evidence-based interventions and monitoring and evaluation was found. The study’s results are limited in scope of influence due to the Internet-based design and should be taken cautiously. More empirical, multidisciplinary, and multi-stakeholder research is required to improve understanding of survivors’ support needs and to inform policies and practices that are culturally competent, survivor-centered, gender-inclusive and empowering.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of Human Trafficking

Publication Date