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PurposePrevious studies have shown an overall decreased risk of second cancers among prostate cancer survivors, but this has not been comprehensively examined by race/ethnicity. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 716,319 one-year survivors of prostate cancer diagnosed at ages 35-84 during 2000-2015 as reported to 17 US Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries.MethodsWe estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for second primary non-prostate malignancies by race/ethnicity (non-Latino white, Black, Asian/Pacific Islander [API] and Latino), by Gleason, and by time since prostate cancer diagnosis. Poisson regression models were used to test heterogeneity between groups with the expected number as the offset.Results60,707 second primary malignancies were observed. SIRs for all second cancers combined varied significantly by race/ethnicity: SIRwhite: 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.87-0.89), SIRLatino: 0.92 (0.89-0.95), SIRBlack: 0.97 (0.95-0.99), and SIRAPI: 1.05 (1.01-1.09) (p-heterogeneity ConclusionsOur results confirm that most prostate cancer survivors have lower risks of second cancers than expected, but the magnitude varied by race/ethnicity. Exceptionally, API men had small but significantly increased risk. Further research to understand drivers of the observed race/ethnicity heterogeneity is warranted.

Original publication




Journal article


Cancer causes & control : CCC

Publication Date





1011 - 1019


Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, USA.


Humans, Prostatic Neoplasms, Neoplasms, Second Primary, Registries, SEER Program, Incidence, Risk, Retrospective Studies, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Middle Aged, United States, Male, Cancer Survivors, Ethnicity