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Psychiatry has increasingly adopted explanations for psychopathology that are based on neurobiological reductionism. With the recognition of health disparities and the realisation that someone's postcode can be a better predictor of health outcomes than their genetic code, there are increasing efforts to ensure cultural and social–structural competence in psychiatric practice. Although neuroscientific and social–cultural approaches in psychiatry remain largely separate, they can be brought together in a multilevel explanatory framework to advance psychiatric theory, research, and practice. In this Personal View, we outline how a cultural–ecosocial systems approach to integrating neuroscience in psychiatry can promote social–contextual and systemic thinking for more clinically useful formulations and person-centred care.

Original publication




Journal article


The Lancet Psychiatry

Publication Date





296 - 304