A Web-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Mindfulness Meditation, and Yoga Intervention for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Single-Arm Experimental Clinical Trial.
Kirk MA., Taha B., Dang K., McCague H., Hatzinakos D., Katz J., Ritvo P.
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating, undertreated condition. The web-based delivery of cognitive behavioral therapy supplemented with mindfulness meditation and yoga is a viable treatment that emphasizes self-directed daily practice. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a web-based cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness, and yoga (CBT-MY) program designed for daily use. METHODS: We conducted an 8-week, single-arm, experimental, registered clinical trial on adults reporting PTSD symptoms (n=22; aged 18-35 years). Each participant received web-based CBT-MY content and an hour of web-based counseling each week. Pre-post outcomes included self-reported PTSD symptom severity, depression, anxiety, chronic pain, and mindfulness. Pre-post psychophysiological outcomes included peak pupil dilation (PPD) and heart rate variability (HRV). HRV and PPD were also compared with cross-sectional data from a non-PTSD comparison group without a history of clinical mental health diagnoses and CBT-MY exposure (n=46). RESULTS: Pre-post intention-to-treat analyses revealed substantial improvements in PTSD severity (d=1.60), depression (d=0.83), anxiety (d=0.99), and mindfulness (d=0.88). Linear multilevel mixed models demonstrated a significant pre-post reduction in PPD (B=-0.06; SE=0.01; P