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BackgroundUp to 30% of urine samples from women with suspected urinary tract infection (UTI) are contaminated and need to be repeated, burdening health services and delaying antibiotic prescription. To prevent contamination, midstream urine (MSU) sampling, which can be difficult to achieve, is recommended. Urine collection devices (UCDs) that automatically capture MSU have been proposed as a solution. There are few studies exploring women's experiences of using such devices.AimTo explore women's experiences of urine collection and the use of UCDs during a suspected UTI.Design and settingAn embedded qualitative study in a UK randomised controlled trial (RCT) of UCDs among women attending primary care for UTI symptoms.MethodSemi-structured telephone interviews with 29 women who had participated in the RCT were conducted. The transcribed interviews were then thematically analysed.ResultsMost of the women were dissatisfied with how they normally produced urine samples. Many were able to use the devices, found them hygienic, and would use them again, even if they had initially experienced problems. Women who had not used the devices expressed interest in trying them. Potential barriers to UCD use included positioning for the sample, UTI symptoms making urine collection difficult, and waste disposal because of the single-use plastic in the UCDs.ConclusionMost women agreed there was a need for a user- and environmentally-friendly device to improve urine collection. Although using UCDs can be difficult for women experiencing UTI symptoms, they may be appropriate for asymptomatic sampling in other clinical populations.

Original publication




Journal article


The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners

Publication Date



Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford.