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BACKGROUND: Digital weight management interventions (DWMIs) have the potential to support existing specialist weight management services (SWMS) in the National Health Service (NHS) to increase access to treatment for people living with obesity and type 2 diabetes. At present, there is limited real-world evidence and long-term outcomes on the potential effectiveness of DWMIs to support such services. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine real-world data to evaluate the impact of Second Nature's 12-month DWMI for patients living with obesity with or without type 2 diabetes, referred from NHS primary care services, on sustained weight loss over a 2-year period. METHODS: Retrospective data were extracted in August 2023 for participants who participated in the program between January 1, 2017, and January 8, 2021. Eligible participants were adults with a BMI ≥35 kg/m2, with or without type 2 diabetes. The primary outcomes were weight change in kilograms and percentage weight change at 2 years. Secondary outcomes were weight loss at 1 year, program engagement, and the proportion of participants who achieved >5% and >10% weight loss. Differences in weight loss between baseline and the 1- and 2-year follow-up points were compared using paired 2-tailed t tests. Linear regression models were used to examine whether participants' ethnicity, indices of multiple deprivation, presence of type 2 diabetes, or program engagement were associated with weight loss at 1 year or 2 years. RESULTS: A total of 1130 participants with a mean baseline BMI of 46.3 (SD 31.6) kg/m2 were included in the analysis. Of these participants, 65% (740/1130) were female (mean age 49.9, SD 12.0 years), 18.1% (205/339) were from Black, Asian, mixed, or other ethnicities, and 78.2% (884/1130) had type 2 diabetes. A total of 281 (24.9%) participants recorded weight readings at 2 years from baseline, with a mean weight loss of 13.8 kg (SD 14.2 kg; P

Original publication




Journal article


JMIR Diabetes

Publication Date





clinical, diabetes, diabetes management, digital health, digital health intervention, effectiveness, manage, management, mobile phone, obesity, obesity management, primary care, primary care service, retrospective analysis, smartphone, support, treatment, type 2 diabetes, weight, weight loss, weight management