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Background Long COVID (LC) is a novel multisystem clinical syndrome affecting millions of individuals worldwide. The modified COVID-19 Yorkshire Rehabilitation Scale (C19-YRSm) is a condition-specific patient-reported outcome measure designed for assessment and monitoring of people with LC. Objectives To evaluate the psychometric properties of the C19-YRSm in a prospective sample of people with LC. Methods 1314 patients attending 10 UK specialist LC clinics completed C19-YRSm and EuroQol 5D-5L (EQ-5D5L) longitudinally. Scale characteristics were derived for C19-YRSm subscales (Symptom Severity (SS), Functional Disability (FD) and Overall Health (OH)) and internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha). Convergent validity was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT)—Fatigue Scale. Known groups validity was assessed for the Other Symptoms subscale as tertiles, as well as by hospitalisation and intensive care admission. Responsiveness and test–retest reliability was evaluated for C19-YRSm subscales and EQ-5D-5L. The minimal important difference (MID) and minimal clinically important difference (MCID) were estimated. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to determine the instrument’s two-factor structure. Results C19-YRSm demonstrated good scale characteristic properties. Item-total correlations were between 0.37 and 0.65 (for SS and FD), with good internal reliability (Cronbach’s alphas>0.8). Item correlations between subscales ranged between 0.46 and 0.72. Convergent validity with FACIT was good (−0.46 to −0.62). The three subscales discriminated between different levels of symptom burden (p<0.001) and between patients admitted to hospital and intensive care. There was moderate responsiveness for the three subscales ranging from 0.22 (OH) to 0.50 (SS) which was greater than for the EQ-5D-5L. Test–retest reliability was good for both SS 0.86 and FD 0.78. MID was 2 for SS, 2 for FD and 1 for OH; MCID was 4 for both the SS and FD. The factor analysis supported the two-factor SS and FD structure. Conclusions The C19-YRSm is a condition-specific, reliable, valid and responsive patient-reported outcome measure for LC.

Original publication




Journal article


BMJ Open Respiratory Research

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