Evaluation of a cardiovascular disease opportunistic risk assessment pilot ('Heart MOT' service) in community pharmacies
Background Cardiovascular risk-based screening is proposed as a key intervention to reduce premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the UK and internationally. This study evaluated a targeted cardiovascular (CVD) assessment pilot in 23 community pharmacies in Birmingham, UK. Methods The CVD risk assessment service used near-patient testing and the Framingham risk equations administered by pharmacists to screen clients aged 40-70 without known CVD. Outcomes assessed included volume of activity, uptake by deprivation and ethnicity and onwards referral. Results Complete data were available for 1130 of 1141 clients; 679 (60%) male, 218 (19%) smokers and 124 (11%) had a family history of CVD. Overall, 792 (70%) of clients were referred to their general practice: 201 (18%) at CVD risk of 20% or more, remainder with individual risk factor(s). Greater representation from Black (7.4%) and Asian (24.8%) communities and from average and less deprived quintiles than the affluent and most deprived was observed. Conclusions Community pharmacies can provide a CVD risk assessment service in a UK urban setting that can attract males and provide access for deprived communities and Black and Asian communities. A pharmacy service can support GP practices in identifying and managing the workload of around 30% of clients.