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Heart failure requiring urgent therapy represents a burgeoning health care burden. Although acute heart failure syndromes are commonly defined as a change in chronic heart failure signs and symptoms requiring urgent therapy, the presentation, development, and response to treatment is highly dependent on individual patient characteristics. This heterogeneity has led to challenges in interpreting widely differing study methods, including eligibility requirements and outcome measures. To improve interpretation of results and translate such information to better patient care, it is essential to present an accurate description of the patient population and study design. Based on existing recommendations and expert consensus, the authors present standardized reporting criteria to improve interpretability of research in this challenging cohort.

Original publication




Journal article


J Am Coll Cardiol

Publication Date





822 - 832


Emergency Service, Hospital, Heart Failure, Humans, Research Design