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OBJECTIVE-Middle-aged people with diabetes have been reported to have significantly higher risks of cardiovascular events than people without diabetes. However, recent falls in cardiovascular disease rates and more active management of risk factors may have abolished the increased risk. We aimed to provide an up-to-date assessment of the relative risks associated with type 2 diabetes of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged people in the U.K. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Using data from the General Practice Research Database, from 2004 to 2010, we conducted a cohort study of 87,098 people, 40-65 years of age at baseline, comparing 21,798 with type 2 diabetes and 65,300 without diabetes, matched on age, sex, and general practice. We produced hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality and compared rates of blood pressure testing, cholesterol monitoring, and use of aspirin, statins, and antihypertensive drugs. RESULTS-People with type 2 diabetes, compared with people without diabetes, had a twofold increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 2.07 [95% CI 1.95-2.20], adjusted for smoking) and a threefold increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (3.25 [2.87-3.68], adjusted for smoking). Women had a higher relative risk than men, and people <55 years of age had a higher relative risk than those >55 years of age. Monitoring and medication rates were higher in those with diabetes (all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS-Despite efforts to manage risk factors, administer effective treatments, and develop new therapies, middle-aged people with type 2 diabetes remain at significantly increased risk of death. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.

Original publication




Journal article


Diabetes Care

Publication Date





2366 - 2371