Effects of different protein content and glycaemic index of ad libitum diets on diabetes risk factors in overweight adults: The DIOGenes multicentre, randomized, dietary intervention trial
Goyenechea E., Holst C., van Baak MA., Saris WHM., Jebb S., Kafatos A., Pfeiffer A., Handjiev S., Hlavaty P., Stender S., Larsen TM., Astrup A., Martinez JA.
Background: Dietary regimens providing different levels of protein and glycemic index (GI) foods when prescribed for weight management may also influence insulin sensitivity. Procedures and Outcomes: Overweight/obese adults in 8 European countries who lost ≥ 8% of initial body-weight (BW) after following a low calorie diet (LCD) were later randomly assigned with a 2x2 factorial design into 4 ad libitum dietary groups with two different protein content levels and dissimilar glycemic index, which were compared to a healthy reference diet. Specific markers assessing insulin resistance were measured. The LCD was initially applied to 932 adults and 773 were randomised to the 5 ad libitum diets. The 6-months programme was completed by 548 participants. The assignment to the Low Protein /High Glycemic Index diet induced a statistically higher HOMA-IR increase during the 6 months period as compared to the control. Contrariwise, the insulin response was lower in the High Protein/Low Glycemic Index diet after 60 and 90 min of an Oral Glucose Tolerance test subsequently carried out after the 6-months intervention. The Low Glycemic Index diets (either with high or low protein content) also lead to a decrease in fructosamine levels during the trial. Conclusion/Interpretation: After a weight loss period, an increase in the dietary protein proportions and a decrease in the consumption of foods with a high Glycemic Index within an ad libitum dietary intervention aiming to weight maintenance produced favorable effects on glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese subjects. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.