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Humans and pigeons were trained to discriminate between 2 views of actual 3-D objects or their photographs. They were tested on novel views that were either within the closest rotational distance between the training views (interpolated) or outside of that range (extrapolated). When training views were 60° apart, pigeons, but not humans, recognized novel views of actual objects better than their pictures. Further, both species recognized interpolated views of both stimulus types better than extrapolated views, but a single distinctive geon enhanced recognition of novel views only for humans. When training views were 90° apart, pigeons recognized interpolated views better than extrapolated views with actual objects but not with photographs, Thus, pigeons may represent actual objects differently than their pictures. © 2005 by the American Psychological Association.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of Experimental Psychology: General

Publication Date





149 - 162