Family-based interventions to increase physical activity in children: a meta-analysis and realist synthesis protocol.
Brown HE., Atkin AJ., Panter J., Corder K., Wong G., Chinapaw MJ., van Sluijs E.
INTRODUCTION: Despite the established relationship between physical activity and health, data suggest that many children are insufficiently active, and that levels decline into adolescence. Engaging the family in interventions may increase and maintain children's physical activity levels at the critical juncture before secondary school. Synthesis of existing evidence will inform future studies, but the heterogeneity in target populations recruited, behaviour change techniques and intervention strategies employed, and measurement conducted, may require a multifaceted review method. The primary objective of this work will therefore be to synthesis evidence from intervention studies that explicitly engage the family unit to increase children's physical activity using an innovative dual meta-analysis and realist approach. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Peer-reviewed studies will be independently screened by two authors for inclusion based on (1) including 'healthy' participants aged 5-12 years; (2) having a substantive intervention aim of increasing physical activity, by engaging the family and (3) reporting on physical activity. Duplicate data extraction and quality assessment will be conducted using a specially designed proforma and the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool respectively. STATA software will be used to compute effect sizes for meta-analyses, with subgroup analyses conducted to identify moderating characteristics. Realist syntheses will be conducted according to RAMESES quality and publication guidelines, including development of a programme theory and evidence mapping. DISSEMINATION: This review will be the first to use the framework of a traditional review to conduct a dual meta-analysis and realist synthesis, examining interventions that engage the family to increase physical activity in children. The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, conferences, formal presentations to policy makers and practitioners and informal meetings. Evidence generated from this synthesis will also be used to inform the development of theory-driven, evidence-based interventions aimed at engaging the family to increase physical activity levels in children. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO): number CRD42013005780.