Effects of polydextrose on different levels of energy intake. A systematic review and meta-analysis
© 2014 The Authors. Introduction: Dietary fibers help to control energy intake and reduce the risk of developing obesity. Recent studies show that the consumption of polydextrose reduces energy intake at a subsequent meal. In this systematic review and meta-analysis we examine the subsequent effects of polydextrose on different levels of energy intake (EI). Method: The review followed the PRISMA methodology. Meta-analyses were expressed as Standardized Mean Difference (SMD). A linear regression approach was used to model the relationship between the polydextrose dose and the different levels of EI expressed as a relative change (%). Results: All the studies included in this review administered polydextrose as part of a mid-morning snack. Six studies were included in the analysis of EI at an ad libitum lunch; and three were included in the analysis of EI during the rest of the day, as well as total daily EI. The meta-analysis showed that the consumption of polydextrose is associated with a reduction in EI at lunch time (SMD = 0.35; P < 0.01; I2= 0). The dose of polydextrose consumed correlated significantly with this reduction in EI, EILunch(%) = -0.67 Polydextrose (g/day) (R2= 0.80; P < 0.01). The meta-analysis of EI during the rest of the day and daily EI did not show any difference. Nevertheless, the regression equation indicates that there is a dose-dependent effect on the reduction of daily EI, EIDaily(%) = -0.35 × Polydextrose (g/day) (R2= 0.68; P < 0.05). Sex-specific results are consistent with results for the whole group. Conclusion: The studies included in this meta-analysis support the notion that the consumption of polydextrose reduces voluntary energy intake at a subsequent meal. Furthermore, this reduction in energy intake occurs in a dose-dependent manner.