Breakfast consumption affects appetite, energy intake, and the metabolic and endocrine responses to foods consumed later in the day in male habitual breakfast eaters
The effects of breakfast consumption on energy intake and the responses to foods consumed later in the day remain unclear. Twelve men of healthy body weight who reported regularly consuming breakfast (mean ± SD age 23.4 6 7.3 y; BMI 23.5 6 1.7 kg/m2) completed 2 trials using a randomized crossover design. Participants were provided with a 1050-kJ liquid preload 150min after consuming a standardized breakfast (B) (10%daily energy requirement and 14, 14, and 72%energy fromprotein, fat, and carbohydrate, respectively), or no breakfast (NB). Blood glucose and seruminsulin responses to the preload (area under thecurve)werehigher in theNBcondition(P<0.05).Plasma FFAresponsesto thepreloadwerehigher in theNBcondition(P< 0.01). Plasmaglucagon-like peptide 1 (P<0.01) and plasmapeptideY (P<0.05) responseswere higher after the preload in the B condition. Desire to eat, fullness, and hunger ratings collected immediately prior to consuming the preloadwere all different fromthe fastingvalues in theNBcondition (P<0.05). Thus, immediately prior to consuming the preload, the fullness ratingwas lower and hunger and desire to eat ratingswere higher in theNB condition (P<0.05). Energy intake at the lunchtime testmeal was ~17%lower in the B condition (P<0.01). In conclusion, missing breakfast causesmetabolic and hormonal differences in the responses to foods consumed later in the morning as well as differences in subjective appetite and a compensatory increase in energy intake. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.